Other affiliations: Carnegie Mellon University, Istanbul Technical University, Sandia National Laboratories ...read more
Bio: Sunil Saigal is an academic researcher from University of South Florida. The author has contributed to research in topics: Finite element method & Boundary element method. The author has an hindex of 35, co-authored 137 publications receiving 3850 citations. Previous affiliations of Sunil Saigal include Carnegie Mellon University & Istanbul Technical University.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: A comprehensive survey of the literature on curved shell finite elements can be found in this article, where the first two present authors and Liaw presented a survey of such literature in 1990 in this journal.
Abstract: Since the mid-1960s when the forms of curved shell finite elements were originated, including those pioneered by Professor Gallagher, the published literature on the subject has grown extensively. The first two present authors and Liaw presented a survey of such literature in 1990 in this journal. Professor Gallagher maintained an active interest in this subject during his entire academic career, publishing milestone research works and providing periodic reviews of the literature. In this paper, we endeavor to summarize the important literature on shell finite elements over the past 15 years. It is hoped that this will be a befitting tribute to the pioneering achievements and sustained legacy of our beloved Professor Gallagher in the area of shell finite elements. This survey includes: the degenerated shell approach; stress-resultant-based formulations and Cosserat surface approach; reduced integration with stabilization; incompatible modes approach; enhanced strain formulations; 3-D elasticity elements; drilling d.o.f. elements; co-rotational approach; and higher-order theories for composites. Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
TL;DR: H-Morph as discussed by the authors is a new algorithm for the generation of a hexahedral-dominant finite element mesh for arbitrary volumes, which uses an advancing front technique where the initial front consists of a set of prescribed quadrilateral surface facets.
Abstract: H-Morph is a new automatic algorithm for the generation of a hexahedral-dominant finite element mesh for arbitrary volumes. The H-Morph method starts with an initial tetrahedral mesh and systematically transforms and combines tetrahedral into hexahedra. It uses an advancing front technique where the initial front consists of a set of prescribed quadrilateral surface facets. Fronts are individually processed by recovering each of the six quadrilateral faces of a hexahedron from the tetrahedral mesh. Recovery techniques similar to those used in boundary constrained Delaunay mesh generation are used. Tetrahedral internal to the six hexahedral faces are then removed and a hexahedron is formed. At any time during the H-Morph procedure a valid mixed hexahedral-tetrahedral mesh is in existence within the volume. The procedure continues until no tetrahedral remain within the volume, or tetrahedral remain which cannot be transformed or combined into valid hexahedral elements. Any remaining tetrahedral are typically towards the interior of the volume, generally a less critical region for analysis. Transition from tetrahedral to hexahedra in the final mesh is accomplished through pyramid shaped elements. Advantages of the proposed method include its ability to conform to an existing quadrilateral surface mesh, its ability to mesh without the need to decompose or recognize special classes of geometry, and its characteristic well-aligned layers of elements parallel to the boundary. Example test cases are presented on a variety of models.
TL;DR: In situations where the approximate data sizes are known in advance and exploratory data analysis and/or domain knowledge can be used to provide a priori insights into the noise-to-signal ratios, the results in the paper point to a way forward for automating the process of MI estimation.
Abstract: Commonly used dependence measures, such as linear correlation, cross-correlogram or Kendall's Tau, cannot capture the complete dependence structure in data unless the structure is restricted to linear, periodic or monotonic. Mutual information (MI) has been frequently utilized for capturing the complete dependence structure including nonlinear dependence. Recently, several methods have been proposed for the MI estimation, such as kernel density estimators (KDE), k-nearest neighbors (KNN), Edgeworth approximation of differential entropy, and adaptive partitioning of the XY plane. However, outstanding gaps in the current literature have precluded the ability to effectively automate these methods, which, in turn, have caused limited adoptions by the application communities. This study attempts to address a key gap in the literature, specifically, the evaluation of the above methods to choose the best method, particularly in terms of their robustness for short and noisy data, based on comparisons with the theoretical MI estimates, which can be computed analytically, as well with linear correlation and Kendall's Tau. Here we consider smaller data sizes, such as 50, 100, and 1 000, where this study considers 50 and 100 data points as very short and 1 000 as short. We consider a broader class of functions, specifically linear, quadratic, periodicmore » and chaotic, contaminated with artificial noise with varying noise-to-signal ratios. The case studies presented here are motivated by domain consideration in the earth sciences where the data are short and noisy. Our results indicate KDE as the best choice for very short data at relatively high noise-to-signal levels whereas the performance of KNN is the best for short data at relatively low noise levels as well as for short data consistently across noise levels. In addition, the optimal smoothing parameter of a Gaussian kernel appears to be the best choice for KDE while three nearest neighbors appear optimal for KNN. Thus, in situations where the approximate data sizes are known in advance, and exploratory data analysis and/or domain knowledge can be used to provide a priori insights on the noise-to-signal ratios, the results in the paper point to a way forward for automating the process of MI estimation.« less
TL;DR: In this paper, a computational technique for fracture propagation in viscoelastic materials using cohesive elements for the zone ahead of the crack tip is presented, which is used to study the problem of increase in fracture energy with peel velocity in peel testing of polymers.
Abstract: A computational modeling technique for fracture propagation in viscoelastic materials using cohesive elements for the zone ahead of the crack tip is presented The computational technique is used to study the problem of increase in fracture energy with peel velocity in peel testing of polymers A rate-independent phenomenological cohesive zone model is used to model the intrinsic fracture toughness of the interface between the polymer sheets A dimensional analysis reveals that the macroscopic fracture energy scales with the intrinsic fracture toughness and is a function of peel velocity, and parameters such as the thickness, bulk properties of the polymer sheets, and other cohesive zone properties The growth of fracture energy as a function of the peel velocity has been studied for polymer sheets characterized by a standard linear viscoelastic solid Viscoelastic losses in the peel arm vanish in the limits of very slow and rapid peeling Peak dissipation is obtained at an intermediate velocity, which is related to the characteristic relaxation time and thickness This behavior is interpreted in terms of the size of elastic and viscous zones near the crack tip It is found that the total energy dissipated is dependent upon both the intrinsic fracture toughness and the characteristic opening displacement of the cohesive zone model The computational framework has been used to model experimental data on peeling of Butadiene rubbers It is found that the usual interpretation of these data, that the macroscopic dissipation equals the rate-independent intrinsic toughness multiplied by a factor that depends on rate of loading, leads to a large quantitative discrepancy between theory and experiment It is proposed that a model based on a rate-dependent cohesive law be used to model these peel tests
TL;DR: The mechanical properties of nanocrystalline materials are reviewed in this paper, with emphasis on their constitutive response and on the fundamental physical mechanisms, including the deviation from the Hall-Petch slope and possible negative slope, the effect of porosity, the difference between tensile and compressive strength, the limited ductility, the tendency for shear localization, fatigue and creep responses.
Abstract: The mechanical properties of nanocrystalline materials are reviewed, with emphasis on their constitutive response and on the fundamental physical mechanisms. In a brief introduction, the most important synthesis methods are presented. A number of aspects of mechanical behavior are discussed, including the deviation from the Hall–Petch slope and possible negative slope, the effect of porosity, the difference between tensile and compressive strength, the limited ductility, the tendency for shear localization, the fatigue and creep responses. The strain-rate sensitivity of FCC metals is increased due to the decrease in activation volume in the nanocrystalline regime; for BCC metals this trend is not observed, since the activation volume is already low in the conventional polycrystalline regime. In fatigue, it seems that the S–N curves show improvement due to the increase in strength, whereas the da/dN curve shows increased growth velocity (possibly due to the smoother fracture requiring less energy to propagate). The creep results are conflicting: while some results indicate a decreased creep resistance consistent with the small grain size, other experimental results show that the creep resistance is not negatively affected. Several mechanisms that quantitatively predict the strength of nanocrystalline metals in terms of basic defects (dislocations, stacking faults, etc.) are discussed: break-up of dislocation pile-ups, core-and-mantle, grain-boundary sliding, grain-boundary dislocation emission and annihilation, grain coalescence, and gradient approach. Although this classification is broad, it incorporates the major mechanisms proposed to this date. The increased tendency for twinning, a direct consequence of the increased separation between partial dislocations, is discussed. The fracture of nanocrystalline metals consists of a mixture of ductile dimples and shear regions; the dimple size, while much smaller than that of conventional polycrystalline metals, is several times larger than the grain size. The shear regions are a direct consequence of the increased tendency of the nanocrystalline metals to undergo shear localization. The major computational approaches to the modeling of the mechanical processes in nanocrystalline metals are reviewed with emphasis on molecular dynamics simulations, which are revealing the emission of partial dislocations at grain boundaries and their annihilation after crossing them.
TL;DR: An overview on the SPH method and its recent developments is presented, including the need for meshfree particle methods, and advantages of SPH, and several important numerical aspects.
Abstract: Smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) is a meshfree particle method based on Lagrangian formulation, and has been widely applied to different areas in engineering and science. This paper presents an overview on the SPH method and its recent developments, including (1) the need for meshfree particle methods, and advantages of SPH, (2) approximation schemes of the conventional SPH method and numerical techniques for deriving SPH formulations for partial differential equations such as the Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations, (3) the role of the smoothing kernel functions and a general approach to construct smoothing kernel functions, (4) kernel and particle consistency for the SPH method, and approaches for restoring particle consistency, (5) several important numerical aspects, and (6) some recent applications of SPH. The paper ends with some concluding remarks.
TL;DR: The structural properties of biosilica observed in the hexactinellid sponge Euplectella sp.
Abstract: Structural materials in nature exhibit remarkable designs with building blocks, often hierarchically arranged from the nanometer to the macroscopic length scales. We report on the structural properties of biosilica observed in the hexactinellid sponge Euplectella sp. Consolidated, nanometer-scaled silica spheres are arranged in well-defined microscopic concentric rings glued together by organic matrix to form laminated spicules. The assembly of these spicules into bundles, effected by the laminated silica-based cement, results in the formation of a macroscopic cylindrical square-lattice cagelike structure reinforced by diagonal ridges. The ensuing design overcomes the brittleness of its constituent material, glass, and shows outstanding mechanical rigidity and stability. The mechanical benefits of each of seven identified hierarchical levels and their comparison with common mechanical engineering strategies are discussed.
TL;DR: Theories and finite elements for multilayered structures have been reviewed in this article, where the authors present an extensive numerical evaluation of available results, along with assessment and benchmarking.
Abstract: This work is a sequel of a previous author’s article: “Theories and Finite Elements for Multilayered. Anisotropic, Composite Plates and Shell”, Archive of Computational Methods in Engineering Vol 9, no 2, 2002; in which a literature overview of available modelings for layered flat and curved structures was given. The two following topics, which were not addressed in the previous work, are detailed in this review: 1. derivation of governing equations and finite element matrices for some of the most relevant plate/shell theories; 2. to present an extensive numerical evaluations of available results, along with assessment and benchmarking. The article content has been divided into four parts. An introduction to this review content is given in Part I. A unified description of several modelings based on displacements and transverse stress assumptions ins given in Part II. The order of the expansion in the thickness directions has been taken as a free parameter. Two-dimensional modelings which include Zig-Zag effects, Interlaminar Continuity as well as Layer-Wise (LW), and Equivalent Single Layer (ESL) description have been addressed. Part III quotes governing equations and FE matrices which have been written in a unified manner by making an extensive use of arrays notations. Governing differential equations of double curved shells and finite element matrices of multilayered plates are considered. Principle of Virtual Displacement (PVD) and Reissner’s Mixed Variational Theorem (RMVT), have been employed as statements to drive variationally consistent conditions, e.g.C 0 -Requirements, on the assumed displacements and stransverse stress fields. The number of the nodes in the element has been taken as a free parameter. As a results both differential governing equations and finite element matrices have been written in terms of a few 3×3 fundamental nuclei which have 9 only terms each. A vast and detailed numerical investigation has been given in Part IV. Performances of available theories and finite elements have been compared by building about 40 tables and 16 figures. More than fifty available theories and finite elements have been compared to those developed in the framework of the unified notation discussed in Parts II and III. Closed form solutions and and finite element results related to bending and vibration of plates and shells have been addressed. Zig-zag effects and interlaminar continuity have been evaluated for a number of problems. Different possibilities to get transverse normal stresses have been compared. LW results have been systematically compared to ESL ones. Detailed evaluations of transverse normal stress effects are given. Exhaustive assessment has been conducted in the Tables 28–39 which compare more than 40 models to evaluate local and global response of layered structures. A final Meyer-Piening problem is used to asses two-dimensional modelings vs local effects description.
TL;DR: In this article, an overview of available theories and finite elements that have been developed for multilayered, anisotropic, composite plate and shell structures is presented. But, although a comprehensive description of several techniques and approaches is given, most of this paper has been devoted to the so called axiomatic theories and related finite element implementations.
Abstract: This work is an overview of available theories and finite elements that have been developed for multilayered, anisotropic, composite plate and shell structures. Although a comprehensive description of several techniques and approaches is given, most of this paper has been devoted to the so called axiomatic theories and related finite element implementations. Most of the theories and finite elements that have been proposed over the last thirty years are in fact based on these types of approaches. The paper has been divided into three parts. Part I, has been devoted to the description of possible approaches to plate and shell structures: 3D approaches, continuum based methods, axiomatic and asymptotic two-dimensional theories, classical and mixed formulations, equivalent single layer and layer wise variable descriptions are considered (the number of the unknown variables is considered to be independent of the number of the constitutive layers in the equivalent single layer case). Complicating effects that have been introduced by anisotropic behavior and layered constructions, such as high transverse deformability, zig-zag effects and interlaminar continuity, have been discussed and summarized by the acronimC -Requirements. Two-dimensional theories have been dealt with in Part II. Contributions based on axiomatic, asymtotic and continuum based approaches have been overviewed. Classical theories and their refinements are first considered. Both case of equivalent single-layer and layer-wise variables descriptions are discussed. The so-called zig-zag theories are then discussed. A complete and detailed overview has been conducted for this type of theory which relies on an approach that is entirely originated and devoted to layered constructions. Formulas and contributions related to the three possible zig-zag approaches, i.e. Lekhnitskii-Ren, Ambartsumian-Whitney-Rath-Das, Reissner-Murakami-Carrera ones have been presented and overviewed, taking into account the findings of a recent historical note provided by the author. Finite Element FE implementations are examined in Part III. The possible developments of finite elements for layered plates and shells are first outlined. FEs based on the theories considered in Part II are discussed along with those approaches which consist of a specific application of finite element techniques, such as hybrid methods and so-called global/local techniques. The extension of finite elements that were originally developed for isotropic one layered structures to multilayerd plates and shells are first discussed. Works based on classical and refined theories as well as on equivalent single layer and layer-wise descriptions have been overviewed. Development of available zig-zag finite elements has been considered for the three cases of zig-zag theories. Finite elements based on other approches are also discussed. Among these, FEs based on asymtotic theories, degenerate continuum approaches, stress resultant methods, asymtotic methods, hierarchy-p,_-s global/local techniques as well as mixed and hybrid formulations have been overviewed.