Sunny C. Jiang
Other affiliations: University of California, Berkeley, University of South Florida St. Petersburg, Southern California Coastal Water Research Project ...read more
Bio: Sunny C. Jiang is an academic researcher from University of California, Irvine. The author has contributed to research in topics: Indicator bacteria & Vibrio cholerae. The author has an hindex of 44, co-authored 125 publications receiving 6885 citations. Previous affiliations of Sunny C. Jiang include University of California, Berkeley & University of South Florida St. Petersburg.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: Emerging approaches for reusing wastewater and minimizing its generation make the most of scarce freshwater resources, serve the varying water needs of both developed and developing countries, and confer a variety of environmental benefits.
Abstract: Humans create vast quantities of wastewater through inefficiencies and poor management of water systems. The wasting of water poses sustainability challenges, depletes energy reserves, and undermines human water security and ecosystem health. Here we review emerging approaches for reusing wastewater and minimizing its generation. These complementary options make the most of scarce freshwater resources, serve the varying water needs of both developed and developing countries, and confer a variety of environmental benefits. Their widespread adoption will require changing how freshwater is sourced, used, managed, and priced.
TL;DR: The results of this study call for both a reevaluation of current recreational water quality standards to reflect the viral quality of recreational waters and monitoring of Recreational waters for human viruses on a regular basis.
Abstract: A nested-PCR method was used to detect the occurrence of human adenovirus in coastal waters of Southern California. Twenty- to forty-liter water samples were collected from 12 beach locations from Malibu to the border of Mexico between February and March 1999. All sampling sites were located at mouths of major rivers and creeks. Two ultrafiltration concentration methods, tangential flow filtration (TFF) and vortex flow filtration (VFF), were compared using six environmental samples. Human adenoviruses were detected in 4 of the 12 samples tested after nucleic acid extraction of VFF concentrates. The most probable number of adenoviral genomes ranged from 880 to 7,500 per liter of water. Coliphages were detected at all sites, with the concentration varying from 5.3 to 3332 PFU/liter of water. F-specific coliphages were found at 5 of the 12 sites, with the concentration ranging from 5.5 to 300 PFU/liter. The presence of human adenovirus was not significantly correlated with the concentration of coliphage (r = 0.32) but was significantly correlated (r = 0.99) with F-specific coliphage. The bacterial indicators (total coliforms, fecal coliforms, and enterococci) were found to exceed California recreational water quality daily limits at 5 of the 12 sites. However, this excess of bacterial indicators did not correlate with the presence of human adenoviruses in coastal waters. The results of this study call for both a reevaluation of our current recreational water quality standards to reflect the viral quality of recreational waters and monitoring of recreational waters for human viruses on a regular basis.
TL;DR: It is suggested that transduction could be an important mechanism for horizontal gene transfer in the marine environment and up to 1.3 × 1014 transduction events per year could occur in the Tampa Bay Estuary.
Abstract: To determine the potential for bacteriophage-mediated gene transfer in the marine environment, we established transduction systems by using marine phage host isolates. Plasmid pQSR50, which contains transposon Tn5 and encodes kanamycin and streptomycin resistance, was used in plasmid transduction assays. Both marine bacterial isolates and concentrated natural bacterial communities were used as recipients in transduction studies. Transductants were detected by a gene probe complementary to the neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) gene in Tn5. The transduction frequencies ranged from 1.33 x 10(-7) to 5.13 x 10(-9) transductants/PFU in studies performed with the bacterial isolates. With the mixed bacterial communities, putative transductants were detected in two of the six experiments performed. These putative transductants were confirmed and separated from indigenous antibiotic-resistant bacteria by colony hybridization probed with the nptII probe and by PCR amplification performed with two sets of primers specific for pQSR50. The frequencies of plasmid transduction in the mixed bacterial communities ranged from 1.58 x 10(-8) to 3.7 x 10(-8) transductants/PFU. Estimates of the transduction rate obtained by using a numerical model suggested that up to 1.3 x 10(14) transduction events per year could occur in the Tampa Bay Estuary. The results of this study suggest that transduction could be an important mechanism for horizontal gene transfer in the marine environment.
TL;DR: The ability via real-time PCR to detect enterococci and adenoviruses rapidly and quantitatively in the various environmental samples represents a considerable advancement and a great potential for environmental applications.
Abstract: Pathogenic bacteria and enteric viruses can be introduced into the environment via human waste discharge. Methods for rapid detection and quantification of human viruses and fecal indicator bacteria in water are urgently needed to prevent human exposure to pathogens through drinking and recreational waters. Here we describe the development of two real-time PCR methods to detect and quantify human adenoviruses and enterococci in environmental waters. For real-time quantification of enterococci, a set of primers and a probe targeting the 23S rRNA gene were used. The standard curve generated using Enterococcus faecalis genomic DNA was linear over a 7-log-dilution series. Serial dilutions of E. faecalis suspensions resulted in a lower limit of detection (LLD) of 5 CFU/reaction. To develop real-time PCR for adenoviruses, degenerate primers and a Taqman probe targeting a 163-bp region of the adenovirus hexon gene were designed to specifically amplify 14 different serotypes of human adenoviruses, including enteric adenovirus serotype 40 and 41. The standard curve generated was linear over a 5-log-dilution series, and the LLD was 100 PFU/reaction using serial dilutions of purified adenoviral particles of serotype 40. Both methods were optimized to be applicable to environmental samples. The real-time PCR methods showed a greater sensitivity in detection of adenoviruses in sewage samples than the viral plaque assay and in detection of enterococci in coastal waters than the bacterial culture method. However, enterococcus real-time PCR overestimated the number of bacteria in chlorinated sewage in comparison with the bacterial culture method. Overall, the ability via real-time PCR to detect enterococci and adenoviruses rapidly and quantitatively in the various environmental samples represents a considerable advancement and a great potential for environmental applications.
TL;DR: The results indicated that the viral population in Tampa Bay had a strong seasonal pattern with the highest concentrations in the summer and lowest in the winter, and dissolved DNA concentrations displayed diel rhythmicity, suggesting that viruses were not the main source of dissolved DNA.
Abstract: To understand the role of viruses in the marine environment, it is important to know the factors affecting their temporal distribution and the abundance of lysogens. We therefore performed a seasonal and a diel study on viral distribution in Tampa Bay, Florida, USA, and detected the abundance of lysogens and bacteriocinogens amongst marine bacterial isolates from diverse marine environments. We investigated the distribution of viruses, bacterial direct counts, chlorophyll a (chl a), salinity and temperature during a 13 mo period in the Tampa Bay estuary. The results indicated that the viral population had a strong seasonal pattern with the highest concentrations (2.0 f 0.8 X 10') in the summer and lowest (4.8 k 1.4 X 106) in the winter Viral abundance was negatively correlated with salinity ( r = -0.8031, and positively correlated with chl a concentration (r = 0.725). A dlel study in a seawater mesocosm indcated that viral abundance did not vary on a diel rhythm, but rather peaked after a maximumin bacterial abundance and chl a. Dissolved DNA concentrations displayed diel rhythmicity, suggesting that viruses were not the main source of dissolved DNA. An estimation of the percentage of the bacterial standing stock lysed by viruses based on 4 h intervals ranged from 3.0 to 53.3 % per day. Screening bacterial isolates for the presence of inducible prophages indicated that 43 % were lysogens or bacteriocinogens, suggesting that lysogeny and bacteriocinogeny are common in the marine environment.
01 Jan 2020
TL;DR: Prolonged viral shedding provides the rationale for a strategy of isolation of infected patients and optimal antiviral interventions in the future.
Abstract: Summary Background Since December, 2019, Wuhan, China, has experienced an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 have been reported but risk factors for mortality and a detailed clinical course of illness, including viral shedding, have not been well described. Methods In this retrospective, multicentre cohort study, we included all adult inpatients (≥18 years old) with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from Jinyintan Hospital and Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital (Wuhan, China) who had been discharged or had died by Jan 31, 2020. Demographic, clinical, treatment, and laboratory data, including serial samples for viral RNA detection, were extracted from electronic medical records and compared between survivors and non-survivors. We used univariable and multivariable logistic regression methods to explore the risk factors associated with in-hospital death. Findings 191 patients (135 from Jinyintan Hospital and 56 from Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital) were included in this study, of whom 137 were discharged and 54 died in hospital. 91 (48%) patients had a comorbidity, with hypertension being the most common (58 [30%] patients), followed by diabetes (36 [19%] patients) and coronary heart disease (15 [8%] patients). Multivariable regression showed increasing odds of in-hospital death associated with older age (odds ratio 1·10, 95% CI 1·03–1·17, per year increase; p=0·0043), higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (5·65, 2·61–12·23; p Interpretation The potential risk factors of older age, high SOFA score, and d-dimer greater than 1 μg/mL could help clinicians to identify patients with poor prognosis at an early stage. Prolonged viral shedding provides the rationale for a strategy of isolation of infected patients and optimal antiviral interventions in the future. Funding Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences; National Science Grant for Distinguished Young Scholars; National Key Research and Development Program of China; The Beijing Science and Technology Project; and Major Projects of National Science and Technology on New Drug Creation and Development.
TL;DR: Unlike eukaryotes, which evolve principally through the modification of existing genetic information, bacteria have obtained a significant proportion of their genetic diversity through the acquisition of sequences from distantly related organisms.
Abstract: Unlike eukaryotes, which evolve principally through the modification of existing genetic information, bacteria have obtained a significant proportion of their genetic diversity through the acquisition of sequences from distantly related organisms. Horizontal gene transfer produces extremely dynamic genomes in which substantial amounts of DNA are introduced into and deleted from the chromosome. These lateral transfers have effectively changed the ecological and pathogenic character of bacterial species.
01 Jun 2005
TL;DR: Viruses are by far the most abundant 'lifeforms' in the oceans and are the reservoir of most of the genetic diversity in the sea, thereby driving the evolution of both host and viral assemblages.
Abstract: If stretched end to end, the estimated 1030viruses in the oceans would span farther than the nearest 60 galaxies. This reservoir of genetic and biological diversity continues to yield exciting discoveries and, in this Review, Curtis A. Suttle highlights the areas that are likely to be of greatest interest in the next few years. Viruses are by far the most abundant 'lifeforms' in the oceans and are the reservoir of most of the genetic diversity in the sea. The estimated 1030 viruses in the ocean, if stretched end to end, would span farther than the nearest 60 galaxies. Every second, approximately 1023 viral infections occur in the ocean. These infections are a major source of mortality, and cause disease in a range of organisms, from shrimp to whales. As a result, viruses influence the composition of marine communities and are a major force behind biogeochemical cycles. Each infection has the potential to introduce new genetic information into an organism or progeny virus, thereby driving the evolution of both host and viral assemblages. Probing this vast reservoir of genetic and biological diversity continues to yield exciting discoveries.