01 Jan 1982
TL;DR: In 2020, the employment rate went down slightly for those aged 20 to 59 compared with 2018, while women's employment rate remained almost unchanged as discussed by the authors, and the employment rates among mothers of families with underage children rose from 77.2 to 79.2 per cent.
Abstract: In 2020, the employment rate went down slightly for those aged 20 to 59 compared with 2018. Men’s employment rate fell and women's employment rate remained almost unchanged. The employment rate among mothers of families with underage children rose from 77.2 to 79.2 per cent. The employment rate went up most among those mothers whose youngest child was aged under three. The employment rate fell most among men without children aged under 18. These data derive from Statistics Finland’s table release Labour Force Survey 2020, families and work.
01 Jan 1996
TL;DR: This paper used the 1991 census to study ethnicity higher education qualifications ethnic differences in the educational participation of 16-19 year-olds, self-employment and unemployment patterns of ethnic minority employment int he context of industrial and occupational growth and decline education and occupational attainments.
Abstract: Introduction - using the 1991 census to study ethnicity higher education qualifications ethnic differences in the educational participation of 16-19 year-olds labour force participation rates, self-employment and unemployment patterns of ethnic minority employment int he context of industrial and occupational growth and decline education and occupational attainments - the impact of ethnic origins monitoring equal employment opportunity "race", ethnicity and housing differentials in Britain regional and local differences in the housing tenure of ethnic minorities the housing position of ethnic minority group home owners finding a place - the impact of locality on the housing experience of tenants from minority ethnic groups adding an ethnic dimension to local housing need assessments - the use of the 1991 census of population ethnic differences in attainment in education, occupation and lifestyle "ethnic penalties" and racial discrimination in education, employment and housing - conclusions and policy implications.
01 Jan 1980
01 Jan 1993
01 Jan 1977
TL;DR: Psychiatric disorders are common and frequently multiple in children with autism spectrum disorders and should be routinely evaluated in the clinical assessment of this group.
Abstract: Objective Autism spectrum disorders are now recognized to occur in up to 1% of the population and to be a major public health concern because of their early onset, lifelong persistence, and high levels of associated impairment. Little is known about the associated psychiatric disorders that may contribute to impairment. We identify the rates and type of psychiatric comorbidity associated with ASDs and explore the associations with variables identified as risk factors for child psychiatric disorders. Method A subgroup of 112 ten- to 14-year old children from a population-derived cohort was assessed for other child psychiatric disorders (3 months' prevalence) through parent interview using the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment. DSM-IV diagnoses for childhood anxiety disorders, depressive disorders, oppositional defiant and conduct disorders, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, tic disorders, trichotillomania, enuresis, and encopresis were identified. Results Seventy percent of participants had at least one comorbid disorder and 41% had two or more. The most common diagnoses were social anxiety disorder (29.2%, 95% confidence interval [Cl)] 13.2-45.1), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (28.2%, 95% Cl 13.3-43.0), and oppositional defiant disorder (28.1 %, 95% Cl 13.9-42.2). Of those with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, 84% received a second comorbid diagnosis. There were few associations between putative risk factors and psychiatric disorder. Conclusions Psychiatric disorders are common and frequently multiple in children with autism spectrum disorders. They may provide targets for intervention and should be routinely evaluated in the clinical assessment of this group. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry , 2008;47(8):921-929.
TL;DR: In a survey of 808 Belgian respondents, the actual willingness to pay for fair-trade coffee was measured and it was found that the average price premium that the consumers were willing to paid for a fair- trade label was 10%.
Abstract: Consumers’ buying behavior is not consistent with their positive attitude toward ethical products. In a survey of 808 Belgian respondents, the actual willingness to pay for fair-trade coffee was measured. It was found that the average price premium that the consumers were willing to pay for a fair-trade label was 10%. Ten percent of the sample was prepared to pay the current price premium of 27% in Belgium. Fair-trade lovers (11%) were more idealistic, aged between 31 and 44 years and less “conventional.” Fair-trade likers (40%) were more idealistic but sociodemographically not significantly different from the average consumer.
TL;DR: In this article, a multilevel empirical test of a systemic theory of community attachment in mass society is presented, where the structural determinants of between-community variations in local friendship ties, collective attachment, and rates of local social participation are examined.
Abstract: This study presents a multilevel empirical test of a systemic theory of community attachment in mass society. The data bases are derived from a recent national sample of 10,905 residents of 238 localities in Great Britain that vary across an urban-rural continuum. The first stage of analysis examines the structural determinants of between-community variations in local friendship ties, collective attachment, and rates of local social participation. Community residential stability has positive effects on all three dimensions of community social integration, independent of urbanization, density, and numerous other controls. The second stage of analysis examines the extent to which community characteristics affect individual-level local social bonds. Residential stability has both individual-level and contextual effects on locality-based friendships and on participation in social and leisure activities. The results support the systemic model and demonstrate the importance of linking the microand macro-level dimensions of local community bonds.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors discuss the impact of workplace transitions on employee well-being, focusing on four issues that are current concerns for organizations and workforce; job insecurity, work hours, control at work, and managerial style.
Abstract: Over the last 40 years, major changes have taken place in the workplace. The growth in the use of information technology at work, the globalization of many industries, organizational restructuring, changes in work contracts and worktime scheduling have radically transformed the nature of work in many organizations. The workforce itself is also diversifying, with an increase in female participation, a growing number of dual-earner couples and older workers. The present paper discusses the impact of these workplace transitions on employee well-being. We focus on four issues that are current concerns for organizations and the workforce; job insecurity, work hours, control at work, and managerial style. For each topic, recent research is presented, with suggestions for future research and recommendations for practitioners working in the organizations of today. The paper concludes with some final considerations for researchers and practitioners that may benefit both employee well-being and organizational effectiveness.
TL;DR: In this paper, a detailed analysis of changes in both poverty and inequality since the fall of Apartheid, and the potential drivers of such developments is presented, using national survey data from 1993, 2000 and 2008.
Abstract: This report presents a detailed analysis of changes in both poverty and inequality since the fall of Apartheid, and the potential drivers of such developments. Use is made of national survey data from 1993, 2000 and 2008. These data show that South Africa’s high aggregate level of income inequality increased between 1993 and 2008. The same is true of inequality within each of South Africa’s four major racial groups. Income poverty has fallen slightly in the aggregate but it persists at acute levels for the African and Coloured racial groups. Poverty in urban areas has increased. There have been continual improvements in non-monetary well-being (for example, access to piped water, electricity and formal housing) over the entire post-Apartheid period up to 2008. From a policy point of view it is important to flag the fact that intra-African inequality and poverty trends increasingly dominate aggregate inequality and poverty in South Africa. Race-based redistribution may become less effective over time relative to policies addressing increasing inequality within each racial group and especially within the African group. Rising inequality within the labourmarket – due both to rising unemployment and rising earnings inequality – lies behind rising levels of aggregate inequality. These labour market trends have prevented the labour market from playing a positive role in poverty alleviation. Social assistance grants (mainly the child support grant, the disability grant and the old-age pension) alter the levels of inequality only marginally but have been crucial in reducing poverty among the poorest households. There are still a large number of families that are ineligible for grants because of the lack of appropriate documents. This suggests that there is an important role for the Department of Home Affairs in easing the process of vital registration.