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Author

Susanne H. Sokolow

Other affiliations: University of California, Davis, IBM, Marine Science Institute  ...read more
Bio: Susanne H. Sokolow is an academic researcher from Stanford University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Schistosomiasis & Medicine. The author has an hindex of 23, co-authored 55 publications receiving 1895 citations. Previous affiliations of Susanne H. Sokolow include University of California, Davis & IBM.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jun 2019
TL;DR: Understanding about the links between emerging infectious diseases and food production, finding strong associations worldwide is synthesized, to address the public health challenge posed by feeding 11 billion people.
Abstract: Infectious diseases are emerging globally at an unprecedented rate while global food demand is projected to increase sharply by 2100. Here, we synthesize the pathways by which projected agricultural expansion and intensification will influence human infectious diseases and how human infectious diseases might likewise affect food production and distribution. Feeding 11 billion people will require substantial increases in crop and animal production that will expand agricultural use of antibiotics, water, pesticides and fertilizer, and contact rates between humans and both wild and domestic animals, all with consequences for the emergence and spread of infectious agents. Indeed, our synthesis of the literature suggests that, since 1940, agricultural drivers were associated with >25% of all - and >50% of zoonotic - infectious diseases that emerged in humans, proportions that will likely increase as agriculture expands and intensifies. We identify agricultural and disease management and policy actions, and additional research, needed to address the public health challenge posed by feeding 11 billion people.

309 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Some of the barriers to advancing the understanding of causation in disease ecology are outlined and some solutions for investigating large-scale ecological drivers, such as global warming, pollution, and land-use change are offered.
Abstract: Despite awareness that disease emergence may be related to ecological change, few studies have rigorously analyzed the underlying environmental drivers of the dynamics of disease emergence. This may be due to the fact that ecological change and disease emergence are often mediated through complex and large-scale processes that are not amenable to traditional reductionist approaches to causal inference. Here, we suggest strategies assembled from diverse disciplines, including ecology, epidemiology, and the social sciences, to analyze complex relationships, promote cooperation, increase efficiency, and minimize bias when investigating the ecological drivers of disease emergence. These techniques, which complement traditional hypothesis testing, include epidemiologic causal criteria, strong inference, causal diagrams, model selection, and triangulation. We also present several examples from recent emerging infectious disease investigations, including Hendra virus, Nipah virus, coral diseases, and avian influenza, where these techniques were successfully applied. Here, we outline some of the barriers to advancing our understanding of causation in disease ecology and offer some solutions for investigating large-scale ecological drivers, such as global warming, pollution, and land-use change.

305 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Despite evidence that snail control leads to long-term disease reduction and elimination, most current schistosomiasis control efforts emphasize MDA using praziquantel over snail control, which seems the best strategy for elimination.
Abstract: Background Despite control efforts, human schistosomiasis remains prevalent throughout Africa, Asia, and South America. The global schistosomiasis burden has changed little since the new anthelmintic drug, praziquantel, promised widespread control. Methodology We evaluated large-scale schistosomiasis control attempts over the past century and across the globe by identifying factors that predict control program success: snail control (e.g., molluscicides or biological control), mass drug administrations (MDA) with praziquantel, or a combined strategy using both. For data, we compiled historical information on control tactics and their quantitative outcomes for all 83 countries and territories in which: (i) schistosomiasis was allegedly endemic during the 20th century, and (ii) schistosomiasis remains endemic, or (iii) schistosomiasis has been "eliminated," or is "no longer endemic," or transmission has been interrupted. Principal Findings Widespread snail control reduced prevalence by 92 ± 5% (N = 19) vs. 37 ± 7% (N = 29) for programs using little or no snail control. In addition, ecological, economic, and political factors contributed to schistosomiasis elimination. For instance, snail control was most common and widespread in wealthier countries and when control began earlier in the 20th century. Conclusions/Significance Snail control has been the most effective way to reduce schistosomiasis prevalence. Despite evidence that snail control leads to long-term disease reduction and elimination, most current schistosomiasis control efforts emphasize MDA using praziquantel over snail control. Combining drug-based control programs with affordable snail control seems the best strategy for eliminating schistosomiasis.

155 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is shown that a species of river prawn indigenous to the west coast of Africa, Macrobrachium vollenhovenii, could offer a low-cost, sustainable form of snail control that, when used in synergy with existing drug distribution campaigns, could reduce or locally eliminate the parasite.
Abstract: Eliminating human parasitic disease often requires interrupting complex transmission pathways. Even when drugs to treat people are available, disease control can be difficult if the parasite can persist in nonhuman hosts. Here, we show that restoration of a natural predator of a parasite’s intermediate hosts may enhance drug-based schistosomiasis control. Our study site was the Senegal River Basin, where villagers suffered a massive outbreak and persistent epidemic after the 1986 completion of the Diama Dam. The dam blocked the annual migration of native river prawns (Macrobrachium vollenhoveni) that are voracious predators of the snail intermediate hosts for schistosomiasis. We tested schistosomiasis control by reintroduced river prawns in a before-after-control-impact field experiment that tracked parasitism in snails and people at two matched villages after prawns were stocked at one village’s river access point. The abundance of infected snails was 80% lower at that village, presumably because prawn predation reduced the abundance and average life span of latently infected snails. As expected from a reduction in infected snails, human schistosomiasis prevalence was 18 ± 5% lower and egg burden was 50 ± 8% lower at the prawn-stocking village compared with the control village. In a mathematical model of the system, stocking prawns, coupled with infrequent mass drug treatment, eliminates schistosomiasis from high-transmission sites. We conclude that restoring river prawns could be a novel contribution to controlling, or eliminating, schistosomiasis.

147 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: How anthropogenic change, including human population growth, land use, climate change, globalization of trade, agricultural intensification, and changes in vaccine technology may alter the evolution and transmission of influenza viruses is reviewed.
Abstract: Influenza A virus infections result in approximately 500,000 human deaths per year and many more sublethal infections. Wild birds are recognized as the ancestral host of influenza A viruses, and avian viruses have contributed genetic material to most human viruses, including subtypes H5N1 and H1N1. Thus, influenza virus transmission in wild and domestic animals and humans is intimately connected. Here we review how anthropogenic change, including human population growth, land use, climate change, globalization of trade, agricultural intensification, and changes in vaccine technology may alter the evolution and transmission of influenza viruses. Evidence suggests that viral transmission in domestic poultry, spillover to other domestic animals, wild birds and humans, and the potential for subsequent pandemic spread, are all increasing. We highlight four areas in need of research: drivers of viral subtype dynamics; ecological and evolutionary determinants of transmissibility and virulence in birds and humans; the impact of changing land use and climate on hosts, viruses, and transmission; and the impact of influenza viruses on wild bird hosts, including their ability to migrate while shedding virus.

131 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Preface to the Princeton Landmarks in Biology Edition vii Preface xi Symbols used xiii 1.
Abstract: Preface to the Princeton Landmarks in Biology Edition vii Preface xi Symbols Used xiii 1. The Importance of Islands 3 2. Area and Number of Speicies 8 3. Further Explanations of the Area-Diversity Pattern 19 4. The Strategy of Colonization 68 5. Invasibility and the Variable Niche 94 6. Stepping Stones and Biotic Exchange 123 7. Evolutionary Changes Following Colonization 145 8. Prospect 181 Glossary 185 References 193 Index 201

14,171 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A report on the state of medical schools in medical research and health care under the leadership of John A. D. Cooper and the impact of the coalition for health funding under his leadership and other topics.
Abstract: BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH POLICY COMMITTEE REPORT WAS PUBLISHED AS A SUPPLEMENT TO THE AUGUSTJOURNAL OF MEDICAL EDUCATION. A REPRINT IS ENCLOSED. REQUESTS FOR ADDITIONAL COPIES SHOULD BE ADDRESSED TO THISOFFICE. -COPIES ARE BEING SENT TO MEMBERS OF CONGRESS AND THE KEY MEMBERS OF THE ADMINISTRATION. CALLING UPON-YOUR SENATORSAND CONGRESSMEN TO TELL THE STORY OF THE ROLE. OF MEDICAL SCHOOLS IN BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH AND HEALTH CARE IS IMPORTANT.I STRONGLY URGE THAT YOU MAKE AN 411 APPOINTMENT TO SEE YOUR CONGRESSIONAL REPRESENTATIVES WHILE YOU ARE IN WASHINGTON FOR THE COUNCIL MEETINGON OCTOBER 29. UPON REQUEST WE CAN SUPPLY THE NAMES OF APPOINTMENT SECRETARIES AND PHONE NUMBERS OF YOUR SENATORS AND CONGRESSMEN. APPROPRIATIONS COMMITTEE ACTED WITH EXTRAORDINARY ALACRITY THIS YEAR. THE-NIH APPROPRIATION WAS INCREASED BY 242 MILLION DOLLARSOVER 1971, REPRESENTING A 142 MILLION DOLLAR INCREASE OVER. THE ADMINISTRATION BUDGET, THE BLUE SHEET ASCRIBES APPROPRIATIONS OUTCOME TO THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE COALITION FOR HEALTH FUNDING UNDER THE LEADERSHIP OF JOHN A. D. COOPER.

1,230 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jun 2017-Nature
TL;DR: The global challenge is to steer reefs through the Anthropocene era in a way that maintains their biological functions and will require radical changes in the science, management and governance of coral reefs.
Abstract: Coral reefs support immense biodiversity and provide important ecosystem services to many millions of people Yet reefs are degrading rapidly in response to numerous anthropogenic drivers In the coming centuries, reefs will run the gauntlet of climate change, and rising temperatures will transform them into new configurations, unlike anything observed previously by humans Returning reefs to past configurations is no longer an option Instead, the global challenge is to steer reefs through the Anthropocene era in a way that maintains their biological functions Successful navigation of this transition will require radical changes in the science, management and governance of coral reefs

1,196 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Although a number of assumptions need to be reexamined, like age structure in social mixing patterns and in the distribution of mobility, hospitalization, and fatality, it is concluded that verifiable evidence exists to support the planning of emergency measures.
Abstract: The spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Italy prompted drastic measures for transmission containment. We examine the effects of these interventions, based on modeling of the unfolding epidemic. We test modeling options of the spatially explicit type, suggested by the wave of infections spreading from the initial foci to the rest of Italy. We estimate parameters of a metacommunity Susceptible-Exposed-Infected-Recovered (SEIR)-like transmission model that includes a network of 107 provinces connected by mobility at high resolution, and the critical contribution of presymptomatic and asymptomatic transmission. We estimate a generalized reproduction number ([Formula: see text] = 3.60 [3.49 to 3.84]), the spectral radius of a suitable next-generation matrix that measures the potential spread in the absence of containment interventions. The model includes the implementation of progressive restrictions after the first case confirmed in Italy (February 21, 2020) and runs until March 25, 2020. We account for uncertainty in epidemiological reporting, and time dependence of human mobility matrices and awareness-dependent exposure probabilities. We draw scenarios of different containment measures and their impact. Results suggest that the sequence of restrictions posed to mobility and human-to-human interactions have reduced transmission by 45% (42 to 49%). Averted hospitalizations are measured by running scenarios obtained by selectively relaxing the imposed restrictions and total about 200,000 individuals (as of March 25, 2020). Although a number of assumptions need to be reexamined, like age structure in social mixing patterns and in the distribution of mobility, hospitalization, and fatality, we conclude that verifiable evidence exists to support the planning of emergency measures.

948 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Gut-derived effects in humans is described, a review of current understanding of probiotics and prebiotics as a means to manage the microbiota to improve host health, including mechanisms of actions and potential for clinical use.
Abstract: Probiotics and prebiotics are microbiota-management tools for improving host health. They target gastrointestinal effects via the gut, although direct application to other sites such as the oral cavity, vaginal tract and skin is being explored. Here, we describe gut-derived effects in humans. In the past decade, research on the gut microbiome has rapidly accumulated and has been accompanied by increased interest in probiotics and prebiotics as a means to modulate the gut microbiota. Given the importance of these approaches for public health, it is timely to reiterate factual and supporting information on their clinical application and use. In this Review, we discuss scientific evidence on probiotics and prebiotics, including mechanistic insights into health effects. Strains of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Saccharomyces have a long history of safe and effective use as probiotics, but Roseburia spp., Akkermansia spp., Propionibacterium spp. and Faecalibacterium spp. show promise for the future. For prebiotics, glucans and fructans are well proven, and evidence is building on the prebiotic effects of other substances (for example, oligomers of mannose, glucose, xylose, pectin, starches, human milk and polyphenols).

813 citations