scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question
Author

Suzanne Winsberg

Bio: Suzanne Winsberg is an academic researcher from IRCAM. The author has contributed to research in topics: Timbre & Multidimensional scaling. The author has an hindex of 16, co-authored 35 publications receiving 1693 citations.

Papers
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The model with latent classes and specificities gave a better fit to the data and made the acoustic correlates of the common dimensions more interpretable, suggesting that musical timbres possess specific attributes not accounted for by these shared perceptual dimensions.
Abstract: To study the perceptual structure of musical timbre and the effects of musical training, timbral dissimilarities of synthesized instrument sounds were rated by professional musicians, amateur musicians, and nonmusicians The data were analyzed with an extended version of the multidimensional scaling algorithm CLASCAL (Winsberg & De Soete, 1993), which estimates the number of latent classes of subjects, the coordinates of each timbre on common Euclidean dimensions, a specificity value of unique attributes for each timbre, and a separate weight for each latent class on each of the common dimensions and the set of specificities Five latent classes were found for a three-dimensional spatial model with specificities Common dimensions were quantified psychophysically in terms of log-rise time, spectral centroid, and degree of spectral variation The results further suggest that musical timbres possess specific attributes not accounted for by these shared perceptual dimensions Weight patterns indicate that perceptual salience of dimensions and specificities varied across classes A comparison of class structure with biographical factors associated with degree of musical training and activity was not clearly related to the class structure, though musicians gave more precise and coherent judgments than did nonmusicians or amateurs The model with latent classes and specificities gave a better fit to the data and made the acoustic correlates of the common dimensions more interpretable

599 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Listeners presented with carefully controlled synthetic tones use attack time, spectral centroid, and spectrum fine structure in dissimilarity rating experiments, and spectral flux appears as a less salient timbre parameter, its salience depending on the number of other dimensions varying concurrently in the stimulus set.
Abstract: Timbre spaces represent the organization of perceptual distances, as measured with dissimilarity ratings, among tones equated for pitch, loudness, and perceived duration. A number of potential acoustic correlates of timbre-space dimensions have been proposed in the psychoacoustic literature, including attack time, spectral centroid, spectral flux, and spectrum fine structure. The experiments reported here were designed as direct tests of the perceptual relevance of these acoustical parameters for timbre dissimilarity judgments. Listeners presented with carefully controlled synthetic tones use attack time, spectral centroid, and spectrum fine structure in dissimilarity rating experiments. These parameters thus appear as major determinants of timbre. However, spectral flux appears as a less salient timbre parameter, its salience depending on the number of other dimensions varying concurrently in the stimulus set. Dissimilarity ratings were analyzed with two different multidimensional scaling models (CLASCAL and CONSCAL), the latter providing psychophysical functions constrained by the physical parameters. Their complementarity is discussed.

240 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results suggest that timbre differences are perceived independently from differences of pitch, at least for F0 differences smaller than an octave.
Abstract: The dependency of the timbre of musical sounds on their fundamental frequency (F0) was examined in three experiments. In experiment I subjects compared the timbres of stimuli produced by a set of 12 musical instruments with equal F0, duration, and loudness. There were three sessions, each at a different F0. In experiment II the same stimuli were rearranged in pairs, each with the same difference in F0, and subjects had to ignore the constant difference in pitch. In experiment III, instruments were paired both with and without an F0 difference within the same session, and subjects had to ignore the variable differences in pitch. Experiment I yielded dissimilarity matrices that were similar at different F0’s, suggesting that instruments kept their relative positions within timbre space. Experiment II found that subjects were able to ignore the salient pitch difference while rating timbre dissimilarity. Dissimilarity matrices were symmetrical, suggesting further that the absolute displacement of the set of i...

147 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a set of 21 synthesized sounds were investigated with respect to their acoustic characteristics and several acoustical parameters based on the temporal and frequency properties of the sounds were calculated.
Abstract: A timbre space represents the mental organization of sound events at equal pitch, loudness, and duration. The geometric distance between two timbres corresponds to their degree of perceived dissimilarity. The dimensions of such a three-dimensional space, established by Krumhansl [1] for a set of 21 synthesized sounds, were investigated with respect to their acoustic characteristics. Several acoustical parameters based on the temporal and frequency properties of the sounds were calculated. The high degree of correlation of several parameters with the perceptual axes lend support to previous interpretations of the qualitative character of two perceptual dimensions and their semantic attributes. The perceptual dimensions «brightness» and «rapidity of attack» turn out to be quantitatively explainable by the center of gravity of the sound spectrum (CGS) and the rise time on a logarithmic scale (LTM), respectively. The third dimension, initially called «spectral flux» corresponds partially to the standard deviation of the timeaveraged harmonic amplitudes from a spectral envelope (IRR). A new verbal descritor, «spectral fine structure» seems to fit better with the results of acoustic analyses

135 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A weighted Euclidean distance model for analyzing three-way proximity data is proposed that incorporates a latent class approach and removes the rotational invariance of the classical multidimensional scaling model retaining psychologically meaningful dimensions, and drastically reduces the number of parameters in the traditional INDSCAL model.
Abstract: A weighted Euclidean distance model for analyzing three-way proximity data is proposed that incorporates a latent class approach. In this latent class weighted Euclidean model, the contribution to the distance function between two stimuli is per dimension weighted identically by all subjects in the same latent class. This model removes the rotational invariance of the classical multidimensional scaling model retaining psychologically meaningful dimensions, and drastically reduces the number of parameters in the traditional INDSCAL model. The probability density function for the data of a subject is posited to be a finite mixture of spherical multivariate normal densities. The maximum likelihood function is optimized by means of an EM algorithm; a modified Fisher scoring method is used to update the parameters in the M-step. A model selection strategy is proposed and illustrated on both real and artificial data.

92 citations


Cited by
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Generalized dissimilarity modeling (GDM) as discussed by the authors is a statistical technique for analyzing and predicting spatial patterns of turnover in community composition (beta diversity) across large regions, which is an extension of matrix regression, designed specifically to accommodate two types of nonlinearity commonly encountered in large-scaled ecological data sets: (1) the curvilinear relationship between increasing ecological distance, and observed compositional dissimilarities, between sites; and (2) the variation in the rate of compositional turnover at different positions along environmental gradients.
Abstract: Generalized dissimilarity modelling (GDM) is a statistical technique for analysing and predicting spatial patterns of turnover in community composition (beta diversity) across large regions. The approach is an extension of matrix regression, designed specifically to accommodate two types of nonlinearity commonly encountered in large-scaled ecological data sets: (1) the curvilinear relationship between increasing ecological distance, and observed compositional dissimilarity, between sites; and (2) the variation in the rate of compositional turnover at different positions along environmental gradients. GDM can be further adapted to accommodate special types of biological and environmental data including, for example, information on phylogenetic relationships between species and information on barriers to dispersal between geographical locations. The approach can be applied to a wide range of assessment activities including visualization of spatial patterns in community composition, constrained environmental classification, distributional modelling of species or community types, survey gap analysis, conservation assessment, and climate-change impact assessment.

795 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Three strategies for making more effective use of available biological data and knowledge to alleviate regional conservation planning problems are proposed, more closely integrating biological and environmental data through predictive modeling, with increased emphasis on modeling collective properties of biodiversity rather than individual entities.
Abstract: Vast gaps in available information on the spatial distribution of biodiversity pose a major challenge for regional conservation planning in many parts of the world. This problem is often ad- dressed bybasing suchplanning on variousbiodiversity surrogates. In some situations, distributional datafor selectedtaxamaybeusedassurrogatesforbiodiversityasawhole.However, thisapproach is less effective in data-poor regions, where there may be little choice but to base conservation planning on someform ofremoteenvironmentalmapping,derived, forexample,frominterpretationof satellite imagery or from numerical classiecation of abiotic environmental layers. Although this alternative approach confers obvious beneets in terms of cost-effectiveness and rapidity of application, problems may arise if congruence is poor between mapped land-classes and actual biological distributions. I propose three strategies for making more effective use of available biological data and knowledge to alleviatesuchproblemsby(1)morecloselyintegratingbiologicalandenvironmentaldatathroughpre- dictive modeling, with increased emphasis on modeling collective properties of biodiversity rather than individual entities; (2) making more rigorous use of remotely mapped surrogates in conser- vation planning by incorporating knowledge of heterogeneity within land-classes, and of varying levels of distinctiveness between classes, into measures of conservation priority and achievement; and (3) using relatively data-rich regions as test-beds for evaluating the performance of surrogates that can be readily applied across data-poor regions. (Biodiversity; regional conservation planning; surrogates.)

677 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Investigation of congenital amusia, a lifelong disorder of musical processing, impacts sensitivity to musical emotion elicited by timbre and tonal system information finds amusics rated Western melodies as more tense compared to controls, as they relied less on tonality cues than controls in rating tension for Western melodies.
Abstract: Emotional communication in music depends on multiple attributes including psychoacoustic features and tonal system information, the latter of which is unique to music. The present study investigated whether congenital amusia, a lifelong disorder of musical processing, impacts sensitivity to musical emotion elicited by timbre and tonal system information. Twenty-six amusics and 26 matched controls made tension judgments on Western (familiar) and Indian (unfamiliar) melodies played on piano and sitar. Like controls, amusics used timbre cues to judge musical tension in Western and Indian melodies. While controls assigned significantly lower tension ratings to Western melodies compared to Indian melodies, thus showing a tonal familiarity effect on tension ratings, amusics provided comparable tension ratings for Western and Indian melodies on both timbres. Furthermore, amusics rated Western melodies as more tense compared to controls, as they relied less on tonality cues than controls in rating tension for Western melodies. The implications of these findings in terms of emotional responses to music are discussed.

627 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The model with latent classes and specificities gave a better fit to the data and made the acoustic correlates of the common dimensions more interpretable, suggesting that musical timbres possess specific attributes not accounted for by these shared perceptual dimensions.
Abstract: To study the perceptual structure of musical timbre and the effects of musical training, timbral dissimilarities of synthesized instrument sounds were rated by professional musicians, amateur musicians, and nonmusicians The data were analyzed with an extended version of the multidimensional scaling algorithm CLASCAL (Winsberg & De Soete, 1993), which estimates the number of latent classes of subjects, the coordinates of each timbre on common Euclidean dimensions, a specificity value of unique attributes for each timbre, and a separate weight for each latent class on each of the common dimensions and the set of specificities Five latent classes were found for a three-dimensional spatial model with specificities Common dimensions were quantified psychophysically in terms of log-rise time, spectral centroid, and degree of spectral variation The results further suggest that musical timbres possess specific attributes not accounted for by these shared perceptual dimensions Weight patterns indicate that perceptual salience of dimensions and specificities varied across classes A comparison of class structure with biographical factors associated with degree of musical training and activity was not clearly related to the class structure, though musicians gave more precise and coherent judgments than did nonmusicians or amateurs The model with latent classes and specificities gave a better fit to the data and made the acoustic correlates of the common dimensions more interpretable

599 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An overview of approaches to community-level modelling employed in a series of major land-use planning processes in the northeast New South Wales region of Australia is provided, and how well communities and assemblages derived using these techniques function as surrogates in regional conservation planning is evaluated.
Abstract: Statistical modelling of biological survey data in relation to remotely mapped environmental variables is a powerful technique for making more effective use of sparse data in regional conservation planning. Application of such modelling to planning in the northeast New South Wales (NSW) region of Australia represents one of the most extensive and longest running case studies of this approach anywhere in the world. Since the early 1980s, statistical modelling has been used to extrapolate distributions of over 2300 species of plants and animals, and a wide variety of higher-level communities and assemblages. These modelled distributions have played a pivotal role in a series of major land-use planning processes, culminating in extensive additions to the region's protected area system. This paper provides an overview of the analytical methodology used to model distributions of individual species in northeast NSW, including approaches to: (1) developing a basic integrated statistical and geographical information system (GIS) framework to facilitate automated fitting and extrapolation of species models; (2) extending this basic approach to incorporate consideration of spatial autocorrelation, land-cover mapping and expert knowledge; and (3) evaluating the performance of species modelling, both in terms of predictive accuracy and in terms of the effectiveness with which such models function as general surrogates for biodiversity.

529 citations