Other affiliations: Australian National University, National University of Singapore, University of New South Wales ...read more
Bio: Svetha Venkatesh is an academic researcher from Deakin University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Bayesian optimization & Hidden Markov model. The author has an hindex of 60, co-authored 828 publications receiving 16441 citations. Previous affiliations of Svetha Venkatesh include Australian National University & National University of Singapore.
Papers published on a yearly basis
01 Jan 2019
TL;DR: The proposed memory-augmented autoencoder called MemAE is free of assumptions on the data type and thus general to be applied to different tasks and proves the excellent generalization and high effectiveness of the proposed MemAE.
Abstract: Deep autoencoder has been extensively used for anomaly detection. Training on the normal data, the autoencoder is expected to produce higher reconstruction error for the abnormal inputs than the normal ones, which is adopted as a criterion for identifying anomalies. However, this assumption does not always hold in practice. It has been observed that sometimes the autoencoder "generalizes" so well that it can also reconstruct anomalies well, leading to the miss detection of anomalies. To mitigate this drawback for autoencoder based anomaly detector, we propose to augment the autoencoder with a memory module and develop an improved autoencoder called memory-augmented autoencoder, i.e. MemAE. Given an input, MemAE firstly obtains the encoding from the encoder and then uses it as a query to retrieve the most relevant memory items for reconstruction. At the training stage, the memory contents are updated and are encouraged to represent the prototypical elements of the normal data. At the test stage, the learned memory will be fixed, and the reconstruction is obtained from a few selected memory records of the normal data. The reconstruction will thus tend to be close to a normal sample. Thus the reconstructed errors on anomalies will be strengthened for anomaly detection. MemAE is free of assumptions on the data type and thus general to be applied to different tasks. Experiments on various datasets prove the excellent generalization and high effectiveness of the proposed MemAE.
TL;DR: The purpose of this article is to provide a systematic classification of various ideas and techniques proposed towards the effective abstraction of video contents, and identify and detail, for each approach, the underlying components and how they are addressed in specific works.
Abstract: The demand for various multimedia applications is rapidly increasing due to the recent advance in the computing and network infrastructure, together with the widespread use of digital video technology. Among the key elements for the success of these applications is how to effectively and efficiently manage and store a huge amount of audio visual information, while at the same time providing user-friendly access to the stored data. This has fueled a quickly evolving research area known as video abstraction. As the name implies, video abstraction is a mechanism for generating a short summary of a video, which can either be a sequence of stationary images (keyframes) or moving images (video skims). In terms of browsing and navigation, a good video abstract will enable the user to gain maximum information about the target video sequence in a specified time constraint or sufficient information in the minimum time. Over past years, various ideas and techniques have been proposed towards the effective abstraction of video contents. The purpose of this article is to provide a systematic classification of these works. We identify and detail, for each approach, the underlying components and how they are addressed in specific works.
••20 Jun 2005
TL;DR: The switching hidden semi-markov model (S-HSMM) is introduced, a two-layered extension of thehidden semi-Markov model for the modeling task and an effective scheme to detect abnormality without the need for training on abnormal data is proposed.
Abstract: This paper addresses the problem of learning and recognizing human activities of daily living (ADL), which is an important research issue in building a pervasive and smart environment. In dealing with ADL, we argue that it is beneficial to exploit both the inherent hierarchical organization of the activities and their typical duration. To this end, we introduce the switching hidden semi-markov model (S-HSMM), a two-layered extension of the hidden semi-Markov model (HSMM) for the modeling task. Activities are modeled in the S-HSMM in two ways: the bottom layer represents atomic activities and their duration using HSMMs; the top layer represents a sequence of high-level activities where each high-level activity is made of a sequence of atomic activities. We consider two methods for modeling duration: the classic explicit duration model using multinomial distribution, and the novel use of the discrete Coxian distribution. In addition, we propose an effective scheme to detect abnormality without the need for training on abnormal data. Experimental results show that the S-HSMM performs better than existing models including the flat HSMM and the hierarchical hidden Markov model in both classification and abnormality detection tasks, alleviating the need for presegmented training data. Furthermore, our discrete Coxian duration model yields better computation time and generalization error than the classic explicit duration model.
TL;DR: A set of guidelines was generated to enable correct application of machine learning models and consistent reporting of model specifications and results in biomedical research and it is believed that such guidelines will accelerate the adoption of big data analysis, particularly with machine learning methods, in the biomedical research community.
Abstract: Background: As more and more researchers are turning to big data for new opportunities of biomedical discoveries, machine learning models, as the backbone of big data analysis, are mentioned more often in biomedical journals. However, owing to the inherent complexity of machine learning methods, they are prone to misuse. Because of the flexibility in specifying machine learning models, the results are often insufficiently reported in research articles, hindering reliable assessment of model validity and consistent interpretation of model outputs. Objective: To attain a set of guidelines on the use of machine learning predictive models within clinical settings to make sure the models are correctly applied and sufficiently reported so that true discoveries can be distinguished from random coincidence. Methods: A multidisciplinary panel of machine learning experts, clinicians, and traditional statisticians were interviewed, using an iterative process in accordance with the Delphi method. Results: The process produced a set of guidelines that consists of (1) a list of reporting items to be included in a research article and (2) a set of practical sequential steps for developing predictive models. Conclusions: A set of guidelines was generated to enable correct application of machine learning models and consistent reporting of model specifications and results in biomedical research. We believe that such guidelines will accelerate the adoption of big data analysis, particularly with machine learning methods, in the biomedical research community. [J Med Internet Res 2016;18(12):e323]
20 Jun 2005
TL;DR: The experimental results in a real-world environment have confirmed the belief that directly modeling shared structures not only reduces computational cost, but also improves recognition accuracy when compared with the tree HHMM and the flat HMM.
Abstract: Directly modeling the inherent hierarchy and shared structures of human behaviors, we present an application of the hierarchical hidden Markov model (HHMM) for the problem of activity recognition. We argue that to robustly model and recognize complex human activities, it is crucial to exploit both the natural hierarchical decomposition and shared semantics embedded in the movement trajectories. To this end, we propose the use of the HHMM, a rich stochastic model that has been recently extended to handle shared structures, for representing and recognizing a set of complex indoor activities. Furthermore, in the need of real-time recognition, we propose a Rao-Blackwellised particle filter (RBPF) that efficiently computes the filtering distribution at a constant time complexity for each new observation arrival. The main contributions of this paper lie in the application of the shared-structure HHMM, the estimation of the model's parameters at all levels simultaneously, and a construction of an RBPF approximate inference scheme. The experimental results in a real-world environment have confirmed our belief that directly modeling shared structures not only reduces computational cost, but also improves recognition accuracy when compared with the tree HHMM and the flat HMM.
TL;DR: This book by a teacher of statistics (as well as a consultant for "experimenters") is a comprehensive study of the philosophical background for the statistical design of experiment.
Abstract: THE DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF EXPERIMENTS. By Oscar Kempthorne. New York, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1952. 631 pp. $8.50. This book by a teacher of statistics (as well as a consultant for \"experimenters\") is a comprehensive study of the philosophical background for the statistical design of experiment. It is necessary to have some facility with algebraic notation and manipulation to be able to use the volume intelligently. The problems are presented from the theoretical point of view, without such practical examples as would be helpful for those not acquainted with mathematics. The mathematical justification for the techniques is given. As a somewhat advanced treatment of the design and analysis of experiments, this volume will be interesting and helpful for many who approach statistics theoretically as well as practically. With emphasis on the \"why,\" and with description given broadly, the author relates the subject matter to the general theory of statistics and to the general problem of experimental inference. MARGARET J. ROBERTSON
TL;DR: Machine learning addresses many of the same research questions as the fields of statistics, data mining, and psychology, but with differences of emphasis.
Abstract: Machine Learning is the study of methods for programming computers to learn. Computers are applied to a wide range of tasks, and for most of these it is relatively easy for programmers to design and implement the necessary software. However, there are many tasks for which this is difficult or impossible. These can be divided into four general categories. First, there are problems for which there exist no human experts. For example, in modern automated manufacturing facilities, there is a need to predict machine failures before they occur by analyzing sensor readings. Because the machines are new, there are no human experts who can be interviewed by a programmer to provide the knowledge necessary to build a computer system. A machine learning system can study recorded data and subsequent machine failures and learn prediction rules. Second, there are problems where human experts exist, but where they are unable to explain their expertise. This is the case in many perceptual tasks, such as speech recognition, hand-writing recognition, and natural language understanding. Virtually all humans exhibit expert-level abilities on these tasks, but none of them can describe the detailed steps that they follow as they perform them. Fortunately, humans can provide machines with examples of the inputs and correct outputs for these tasks, so machine learning algorithms can learn to map the inputs to the outputs. Third, there are problems where phenomena are changing rapidly. In finance, for example, people would like to predict the future behavior of the stock market, of consumer purchases, or of exchange rates. These behaviors change frequently, so that even if a programmer could construct a good predictive computer program, it would need to be rewritten frequently. A learning program can relieve the programmer of this burden by constantly modifying and tuning a set of learned prediction rules. Fourth, there are applications that need to be customized for each computer user separately. Consider, for example, a program to filter unwanted electronic mail messages. Different users will need different filters. It is unreasonable to expect each user to program his or her own rules, and it is infeasible to provide every user with a software engineer to keep the rules up-to-date. A machine learning system can learn which mail messages the user rejects and maintain the filtering rules automatically. Machine learning addresses many of the same research questions as the fields of statistics, data mining, and psychology, but with differences of emphasis. Statistics focuses on understanding the phenomena that have generated the data, often with the goal of testing different hypotheses about those phenomena. Data mining seeks to find patterns in the data that are understandable by people. Psychological studies of human learning aspire to understand the mechanisms underlying the various learning behaviors exhibited by people (concept learning, skill acquisition, strategy change, etc.).
01 Jan 2006
TL;DR: Probability distributions of linear models for regression and classification are given in this article, along with a discussion of combining models and combining models in the context of machine learning and classification.
Abstract: Probability Distributions.- Linear Models for Regression.- Linear Models for Classification.- Neural Networks.- Kernel Methods.- Sparse Kernel Machines.- Graphical Models.- Mixture Models and EM.- Approximate Inference.- Sampling Methods.- Continuous Latent Variables.- Sequential Data.- Combining Models.
24 Aug 2012
TL;DR: This textbook offers a comprehensive and self-contained introduction to the field of machine learning, based on a unified, probabilistic approach, and is suitable for upper-level undergraduates with an introductory-level college math background and beginning graduate students.
Abstract: Today's Web-enabled deluge of electronic data calls for automated methods of data analysis. Machine learning provides these, developing methods that can automatically detect patterns in data and then use the uncovered patterns to predict future data. This textbook offers a comprehensive and self-contained introduction to the field of machine learning, based on a unified, probabilistic approach. The coverage combines breadth and depth, offering necessary background material on such topics as probability, optimization, and linear algebra as well as discussion of recent developments in the field, including conditional random fields, L1 regularization, and deep learning. The book is written in an informal, accessible style, complete with pseudo-code for the most important algorithms. All topics are copiously illustrated with color images and worked examples drawn from such application domains as biology, text processing, computer vision, and robotics. Rather than providing a cookbook of different heuristic methods, the book stresses a principled model-based approach, often using the language of graphical models to specify models in a concise and intuitive way. Almost all the models described have been implemented in a MATLAB software package--PMTK (probabilistic modeling toolkit)--that is freely available online. The book is suitable for upper-level undergraduates with an introductory-level college math background and beginning graduate students.
01 Jan 2016
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