Bio: Sydney Ingel is an academic researcher from George Mason University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Medicine & Juvenile. The author has an hindex of 1, co-authored 4 publications receiving 3 citations.
TL;DR: The deprived nature of restricted housing units (RHUs) leaves residents fraught with an innumerable amount of strain this paper, coupled with a problematic grievance system, the social structure of RHUs can p...
Abstract: The deprived nature of restricted housing units (RHUs) leaves residents fraught with an innumerable amount of strain. Coupled with a problematic grievance system, the social structure of RHUs can p...
TL;DR: In this article , the authors used survey and focus group data from 19 JPOs to evaluate their perceptions of the effectiveness of sanctions and incentives in reducing youth noncompliance, specifically in the form of substance use.
Abstract: In juvenile probation, noncompliance with probation conditions is a common occurrence. To deal with this, juvenile probation officers (JPOs) may use different strategies, such as sanctions and incentives. This study uses survey and focus group data from 19 JPOs to evaluate their perceptions of the effectiveness of sanctions and incentives in reducing youth noncompliance, specifically in the form of substance use. Results show that there are two distinct groups of JPOs: those who believe sanctions are an effective deterrent strategy and those who do not. Perceptually and demographically these two groups contain significant differences. Notably, both groups have similar views of social incentives, but JPOs who believe sanctions are ineffective are significantly more likely to have positive views of tangible incentives. This study has implications for how the field of juvenile probation can target JPO perceptions to move toward incentive-based strategies rather than sanction-based strategies for reducing youth substance use.
TL;DR: In this article , N.nan et al. presented a method to solve the problem of homonymity.http://www.nannan.edu.edu/blog/blogs/
TL;DR: The authors explored the nexus of two stories central to contemporary American jurisprudence and - for tens of millions of citizens - central to the American experience: the rise of the "carceral state" through steep increases in the incarceration of non-whites, and the decline, over the very same period, in legal protections for prisoners.
Abstract: This Article explores the nexus of two stories central to contemporary American jurisprudence and - for tens of millions of citizens - central to the American experience: the rise of the "carceral state" through steep increases in the incarceration of non-whites, and the decline, over the very same period, in legal protections for prisoners. The Article suggests that these two stories cannot be considered in isolation from one another. Nearly everything we know about race from the social sciences suggests that, in the highly pressured context of prison life, racial tensions will play a role in the decisions that guards and administrators make concerning prisoner welfare. Social geography tells us concretely that the communities from which non-white prisoners are drawn are the ones least able to advocate for prisoner well-being. And the sociology of citizenship reveals that citizenship itself has always been deeply "raced" in America, making it doubly challenging for a largely non-white prison population to be seen as worthy of humane treatment. Yet the law is not currently equipped to acknowledge or confront the possibility that mistreatment of prisoners is systemically bound to race-based tensions and structural inequities. This is a critical gap that cannot, we argue, be remedied until the courts adopt a more realistic understanding of the workings of race in the corrections world.
TL;DR: In this article , a systematic literature review on the relationship between the physical prison environment and wellbeing remains underexplored, and 16 environmental domains were identified as part of "ethical architecture" in prison environments.
Abstract: The design of prisons can greatly impact the lived experience of imprisonment, yet research on the relationship between the physical prison environment and wellbeing remains underexplored. Following a systematic literature review, 16 environmental domains were identified as part of “ethical architecture” in prison environments. In this context, ethical prison architecture reflects the link between prison design features and the wellbeing of building users. The concept presented here can be used to inform future research on the intersection of prison architecture, prison climate, and experienced wellbeing. Humane treatment, autonomy, and stimuli are identified as latent theoretical constructs that underpin the “ethical prison architecture” concept. The findings include literature originating from 35 countries that spans five continents to offer a thorough framework that can be used to identify potential building adjustments to improve the wellbeing of building users and increase evidence on the influence of prison design features on wellbeing.
01 Jan 2012
TL;DR: The role of federal prisoners' rights litigation in the 1960s and 1970s in shaping the prisons, especially supermaxes, built in the 1980s and 1990s in the United States is examined in this article.
Abstract: Supermaxes across the United States detain thousands in long-term solitary confinement, under conditions of extreme sensory deprivation. Almost every state built a supermax between the late 1980s and the late 1990s. This chapter examines the role of federal prisoners’ rights litigation in the 1960s and 1970s in shaping the prisons, especially supermaxes, built in the 1980s and 1990s in the United States. This chapter uses a systematic analysis of federal court case law, as well as archival research and oral history interviews with key informants, including lawyers, experts, and correctional administrators, to explore the relationship between federal court litigation and prison building and designing. This chapter argues that federal conditions of confinement litigation in the 1960s and 1970s (1) had a direct role in shaping the supermax institutions built in the subsequent decades and (2) contributed to the resistance of these institutions to constitutional challenges. The history of litigation around supermaxes is an important and as-yet-unexplored aspect of the development of Eighth Amendment jurisprudence in the United States over the last half century.
TL;DR: The authors explored the process of visitation, processing procedures, challenges of visitation and staff relations, and women's support systems in prison visitation, finding that visitors are subject to an environment of gendered, racist, and classist oppression.
Abstract: The collateral consequences of incarceration and prison visitation, transcend the boundaries of prison and transform women's lives. Through an intersectional approach, this research uncovers in what capacity degradation and secondary prisonization shape women's lives, and what coping mechanisms women form in response to the difficulties of visitation. Existing research has yet to identify visitors' relationships to one another and how these relationships aid in fostering coping strategies and resilience within the carceral realm. To fill the gaps, I employed qualitative research to explore the process of visitation, processing procedures, challenges of visitation, staff relations, and women's support systems. Findings indicated visitors are subject to an environment of gendered, racist, and classist oppression that varies in degree depending on social heirarchy and status. However, as a manifestation of resilience, women construct coping mechanisms in the form of information and support networks that aid in the dismantling the prevailing culture of scarcity of information and the degradation of free women by prison staff. These marginalized women habitually resist carceral domination through informal interpersonal support systems.
TL;DR: The authors examined in-prison parent-child contact in relation to post-release parent-caregiver relationships, residence, and non-residential contact, and found that more frequent visits increased the odds of both post-parent-child residence and nonresidential visits.
Abstract: Despite promising evidence that family contact during incarceration may reduce recidivism, less is understood about its role in postrelease parental involvement with children. Drawing on data from the randomized controlled trial of the Parent Child Study, this article examines in-prison parent-child contact in relation to postrelease parent-caregiver relationships, residence, and nonresidential contact. Predictors of contact include measures of visits, calls, and letters. We use ordinary least-squares regression, logistic regression, and multivariate negative binomial models to assess the outcomes. We show that in-prison visits and calls are associated with caregiver relationship quality and that more frequent visits increase the odds of both postrelease parent-child residence and nonresidential visits. Parent-child visits in prison predict parent involvement after release and may be vital to children and families over and above contact in general. Findings have implications for social workers, criminal justice practitioners, policy makers, and nonprofit agency staff working with incarcerated parents.