T. R. Santosh
Bio: T. R. Santosh is an academic researcher from Indian Institute of Technology Madras. The author has contributed to research in topics: Mimosine & Glutathione reductase. The author has an hindex of 2, co-authored 2 publications receiving 39 citations.
TL;DR: The results including the differential response of GR activity to Se or mimosine supplementation are reflective of an effective reductive environment in Se groups and increased turnover of GSH in the presence of Mimosine.
Abstract: Actaptive alterations in glutathione (GSH) metabolism were studied during oxidative stress induced by selenium (Se) deficiency in germinating seedlings ofTrigonella foenum- graecum grown for 72 h and the response to supplementation individually of Se or mimosine was explored. Growth enhancement with improved mitochondrial efficiency was elicited by supplementation of Se at 0.5-0.75 ppm or mimosine at 0.1-0.2 mM. Total thiol and protein levels of mitochondrial and soluble fractions, in general, did not vary significantly with supplementation of either Se or mimosine except that the mitochondrial protein levels in mimosine groups (0.1-0.2 mM) decreased by 20–30%. Mitochondrial glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) increased by twofold in activity toward H2O2, cumene hydroperoxide (CHP), and t-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP) in Se groups, and by 50–60% increase toward H2O2 and CHP but by a twofold enhancement in enzyme activity with tBHP in mimosine groups. Soluble GSH-Px activity increased by 30–40% only in mimosine groups and remained unaltered in Se groups. Glutathione S-transferase activity (GST) in the soluble fraction of both Se and mimosine groups increased dramatically by fivefold to sixfold. Distinct differences were noted in the response of the stressed seedlings toward exposure to Se or mimosine and included a decline in glutathione reductase (GR) activity by 50–60% in both mitochondria and soluble fractions of Se groups and an increase in GR activity of the mitochondria by twofold and of the soluble enzyme activity by 30% in the mimosine groups. Mimosine exposure resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in the γ-glutamyl transpeptidase levels, but, in contrast, a significant enhancement by 50% was noted in the Se group at 0.75 ppm. The results including the differential response of GR activity to Se or mimosine supplementation are reflective of an effective reductive environment in Se groups and increased turnover of GSH in the presence of mimosine.
TL;DR: It is demonstrated for the first time that mimosine, a naturally occuring toxic amino acid, could be a beneficial growth factor in concentrations between 0.1 and 0.2 mM.
Abstract: Oxidative stress during selenium (Se) deficiency in the seedlings ofTrigonella foenum-graecum grown for 72 h was investigated and the response to supplemented levels of Se (0.5-1 ppm) and mimosine (0.05-1 mM) was evaluated. Beneficial effects of Se was maximal at 0.75 ppm. Mimosine, a toxic amino acid, was also found to be beneficial to the growth of the seedlings exposed up to 0.2 mM. When compared to the stressed seedlings, mitochondrial oxygen uptake from seedlings of Se (0.75 ppm) group and mimosine (0.2 mM) group exhibited threefold enhancement in state 3 respiration rate and a controlled state 4 rate, with respiratory control ratios of 5–8. Upon supplementation at the optimal levels, Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were enhanced fourfold with Se and eightfold with mimosine in the mitochondria. The soluble activity in mimosine groups increased twofold, but only by 75% in Se groups. Peroxidase activity registered a significant increase by threefold in mitochondria and fourfold in soluble fraction in both Se and mimosine groups. Exposure to Se or mimosine exhibited a differential response in the mitochondrial catalase and ascorbate peroxidase (Asc-Px) activities. In the Se groups, both catalase and Asc-Px in mitochondria decreased by 50–60%, which was contrasted by 60% increase in Asc-Px activity and 40% in catalase activity in mimosine groups. Supplementation with either Se or mimosine evoked similar responses of increases with respect to soluble catalase by twofold to threefold and Asc-Px by 90%. The results of the present study reveal (1) the Prevalence of oxidative stress inT. foenum-graecum during Se deficiency, (2) enhanced mitochondrial functional efficiency mediated by Se and mimosine independently, and (3) an antitoxidative role for mimosine during Se deficiency. The study demonstrates for the first time that mimosine, a naturally occuring toxic amino acid, could be a beneficial growth factor in concentrations between 0.1 and 0.2 mM.
TL;DR: This review is to assess the mode of action and role of antioxidants in protecting plants from stress caused by the presence of heavy metals in the environment.
Abstract: The contamination of soils and water with metals has created a major environmental problem, leading to considerable losses in plant productivity and hazardous health effects. Exposure to toxic metals can intensify the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are continuously produced in both unstressed and stressed plants cells. Some of the ROS species are highly toxic and must be detoxified by cellular stress responses, if the plant is to survive and grow. The aim of this review is to assess the mode of action and role of antioxidants in protecting plants from stress caused by the presence of heavy metals in the environment.
TL;DR: The results suggest that Se is an antioxidant or it activates protective mechanisms, which can alleviate oxidative stress in the chloroplasts, and improve the recovery of chlorophyll content following light stress.
Abstract: Higher plants are considered not to require selenium (Se). However, it has recently been shown that Se increases the antioxidative capacity and stress tolerance of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). This research was undertaken to investigate the antioxidative properties of Se during photooxidative stress in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and to determine the defence mechanisms. Potato plants were exposed to 600 μmol/m2/s light intensity at low temperature (4 °C) or paraquat-mediated oxidative stress. The stress responses were monitored by measuring chlorophyll content and following changes in chlorophyll fluorescence and membrane ion leakage. Moreover, the effects of Se on the transcript levels of chloroplast CuZnSOD, mitochondrial MnSOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and psbA were analyzed using northern hybridization. Se supplementation improved the recovery of chlorophyll content following light stress. After prolonged exposure to light, the reduction of Fv/Fm was slightly lower compared with plants cultivated without additional Se. The photosynthesis of Se treated plants was somewhat more tolerant of paraquat and the integrity of membranes was improved during oxidative stress. Se altered transcript accumulation of chloroplast CuZnSOD and GPX but the MnSOD and psbA transcript levels were unaffected. The results suggest that Se is an antioxidant or it activates protective mechanisms, which can alleviate oxidative stress in the chloroplasts.
TL;DR: Although there was no change in total biomass, Se treatment was associated with a 43% increase in seed production and the Se-treated Brassica plants had higher total respiratory activity in leaves and flowers, which may have contributed to higher seed production.
Abstract: Selenium (Se) is essential for humans and animals but is not considered to be essential for higher plants. Although researchers have found increases in vegetative growth due to fertiliser Se, there has been no definitive evidence to date of increased reproductive capacity, in terms of seed production and seed viability. The aim of this study was to evaluate seed production and growth responses to a low dose of Se (as sodium selenite, added to solution culture) compared to very low-Se controls in fast-cycling Brassica rapa L. Although there was no change in total biomass, Se treatment was associated with a 43% increase in seed production. The Se-treated Brassica plants had higher total respiratory activity in leaves and flowers, which may have contributed to higher seed production. This study provides additional evidence for a beneficial role for Se in higher plants.
TL;DR: This review attempts to appraise the literature related to non-protein amino acids, both in terms of their metabolism, plant–soil interactions and at the level of the ecosystem, where they are seen as significant drivers of structure and function.
Abstract: Non-protein amino acids are a significant store of organic nitrogen in many ecosystems, but there is a lack of knowledge relating to them. Research has indicated that they play important roles as metabolites, as allelopthic chemicals, in nutrient acquisition, in signalling and in stress response. They are also thought to be responsible for significant medical issues in both invertebrate and vertebrate animals. This review attempts to appraise the literature related to non-protein amino acids, both in terms of their metabolism, plant–soil interactions and at the level of the ecosystem, where they are seen as significant drivers of structure and function. Finally, important areas for future research are discussed.
TL;DR: An extra isoenzyme of glutathione reductase (GR) was induced in the presence of selenite, which confirmed the previous results obtained with Cd and Ni indicating that this GR isoenzymes may have the potential to be a marker for oxidative stress in coffee.
Abstract: Selenium (Se) is an essential element for humans and animals that is required for key antioxidant reactions, but can be toxic at high concentrations. We have investigated the effect of Se in the form of selenite on coffee cell suspension cultures over a 12-day period. The antioxidant defence systems were induced in coffee cells grown in the presence of 0.05 and 0.5 mm sodium selenite (Na2SeO3). Lipid peroxidation and alterations in antioxidant enzymes were the main responses observed, including a severe reduction in ascorbate peroxidase activity, even at 0.05 mm sodium selenite. Ten superoxide dismutase (SOD) isoenzymes were detected and the two major Mn-SOD isoenzymes (bands V and VI) responded more to 0.05 mm selenite. SOD band V exhibited a general decrease in activity after 12 h of treatment with 0.05 mm selenite, whereas band VI exhibited the opposite behavior and increased in activity. An extra isoenzyme of glutathione reductase (GR) was induced in the presence of selenite, which confirmed our previous results obtained with Cd and Ni indicating that this GR isoenzyme may have the potential to be a marker for oxidative stress in coffee.