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T. Ukwatta

Bio: T. Ukwatta is an academic researcher. The author has contributed to research in topics: Gamma-ray burst & Pulsar. The author has an hindex of 3, co-authored 13 publications receiving 28 citations.

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the afterglows and host galaxies of three short-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs): 100625A, 101219A, and 110112A were observed.
Abstract: We present observations of the afterglows and host galaxies of three short-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs): 100625A, 101219A, and 110112A. We find that GRB 100625A occurred in a z = 0.452 early-type galaxy with a stellar mass of ≈4.6 × 10^9 M_☉ and a stellar population age of ≈0.7 Gyr, and GRB 101219A originated in a star-forming galaxy at z = 0.718 with a stellar mass of ≈1.4 × 10^9 M_☉, a star formation rate of ≈16 M_☉ yr^(–1), and a stellar population age of ≈50 Myr. We also report the discovery of the optical afterglow of GRB 110112A, which lacks a coincident host galaxy to i ≳ 26 mag, and we cannot conclusively identify any field galaxy as a possible host. From afterglow modeling, the bursts have inferred circumburst densities of ≈10^(–4)-1 cm^(–3) and isotropic-equivalent gamma-ray and kinetic energies of ≈10^(50)-10^(51) erg. These three events highlight the diversity of galactic environments that host short GRBs. To quantify this diversity, we use the sample of 36 Swift short GRBs with robust associations to an environment (~1/2 of 68 short bursts detected by Swift to 2012 May) and classify bursts originating from four types of environments: late-type (≈50%), early-type (≈15%), inconclusive (≈20%), and "host-less" (lacking a coincident host galaxy to limits of ≳26 mag; ≈15%). To find likely ranges for the true late- and early-type fractions, we assign each of the host-less bursts to either the late- or early-type category using probabilistic arguments and consider the scenario that all hosts in the inconclusive category are early-type galaxies to set an upper bound on the early-type fraction. We calculate most likely ranges for the late- and early-type fractions of ≈60%-80% and ≈20%-40%, respectively. We find no clear trend between gamma-ray duration and host type. We also find no change to the fractions when excluding events recently claimed as possible contaminants from the long GRB/collapsar population. Our reported demographics are consistent with a short GRB rate driven by both stellar mass and star formation.

204 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present observations of the afterglows and host galaxies of three short-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs): 100625A, 101219A and 110112A. The bursts have inferred circumburst densities of ~1e-4-1 cm^-3, and isotropic-equivalent gamma energy and kinetic energies of 1e50-1e51 erg.
Abstract: We present observations of the afterglows and host galaxies of three short-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs): 100625A, 101219A and 110112A. We find that GRB 100625A occurred in a z=0.452 early-type galaxy with a stellar mass of 4.6e9 M_Sun and a stellar population age of 0.7 Gyr, and GRB 101219A originated in a star-forming galaxy at z=0.718 with a stellar mass of 1.4e9 M_Sun, a star formation rate of 16 M_Sun yr^-1, and a stellar population age of 50 Myr. We also report the discovery of the optical afterglow of GRB 110112A, which lacks a coincident host galaxy to i>26 mag and we cannot conclusively identify any field galaxy as a possible host. The bursts have inferred circumburst densities of ~1e-4-1 cm^-3, and isotropic-equivalent gamma-ray and kinetic energies of 1e50-1e51 erg. These events highlight the diversity of galaxies that host short GRBs. To quantify this diversity, we use the sample of 36 Swift short GRBs with robust associations to an environment (~1/2 of 68 short bursts detected by Swift to May 2012) and classify them as follows: late-type (50%), early-type (15%), inconclusive (20%), and host-less (lacking a coincident host galaxy to limits of >26 mag; 15%). To find likely ranges for the true late- and early-type fractions, we assign each of the host-less bursts to the late- or early-type category using probabilistic arguments, and consider the scenario that all hosts in the inconclusive category are early-type galaxies to set an upper bound on the early-type fraction. The most likely ranges for the late- and early-type fractions are ~60-80% and ~20-40%, respectively. We find no clear trend between gamma-ray duration and host type, and no change to the fractions when excluding events recently claimed as possible contaminants from the long GRB/collapsar population. Our reported demographics are consistent with a short GRB rate driven by both stellar mass and star formation.

190 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Markus Ackermann1, Marco Ajello1, Luca Baldini2, Jean Ballet  +180 moreInstitutions (33)
TL;DR: The flat spectrum radio quasar 3C 454.3 underwent an extraordinary outburst in 2009 December when it became the brightest γ-ray source in the sky for over 1 week as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: The flat spectrum radio quasar 3C 454.3 underwent an extraordinary outburst in 2009 December when it became the brightest γ-ray source in the sky for over 1 week. Its daily flux measured with the Fermi-Large Area Telescope at photon energies E>100 MeV reached F 100 = 22 ± 1 × 10–6 photon cm–2 s–1, representing the highest daily flux of any blazar ever recorded in high-energy γ-rays. It again became the brightest source in the sky in 2010 April, triggering a pointed-mode observation by Fermi. The correlated γ-ray temporal and spectral properties during these exceptional events are presented and discussed. The main results show flux variability over time scales less than 3 hr and very mild spectral variability with an indication of gradual hardening preceding major flares. The light curves during periods of enhanced activity in 2008 July-August and 2010 December show strong resemblance, with a flux plateau of a few days preceding the major flare. No consistent loop pattern emerged in the γ-ray spectral index versus the flux plane as would be expected in acceleration and cooling scenarios. The maximum energy of a photon from 3C 454.3 is ≈20 GeV and a minimum Doppler factor of ≈13 is derived. The γ-ray spectrum of 3C 454.3 shows a significant spectral break between ≈2 and 3 GeV that is very weakly dependent on the flux state, even when the flux changes by an order of magnitude.

174 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: No emission lines are visible directly under the burst position, implying little ongoing star formation at the burst location, and Spectroscopy of the galaxy provides a redshift of z = 0.1218, the lowest redshift yet observed for a short GRB.
Abstract: We present the discovery of short GRB 080905A, its optical afterglow and host galaxy. Initially discovered by Swift, our deep optical observations enabled the identification of a faint optical afterglow, and subsequently a face-on spiral host galaxy underlying the GRB position, with a chance alignment probability of <1 per cent. There is no supernova component present in the afterglow to deep limits. Spectroscopy of the galaxy provides a redshift of z = 0.1218, the lowest redshift yet observed for a short GRB. The GRB lies offset from the host galaxy centre by similar to 18.5 kpc, in the northern spiral arm which exhibits an older stellar population than the southern arm. No emission lines are visible directly under the burst position, implying little ongoing star formation at the burst location. These properties would naturally be explained were the progenitor of GRB 080905A a compact binary merger.

107 citations