Bio: Tapobrata Panda is an academic researcher from Indian Institute of Technology Madras. The author has contributed to research in topics: Trichoderma reesei & Fermentation. The author has an hindex of 31, co-authored 117 publications receiving 3175 citations. Previous affiliations of Tapobrata Panda include Indian Institutes of Technology & Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: This short review highlights progress on purification and understanding the biochemical aspects of microbial pectinases.
Abstract: Pectinases are a complex group of enzymes that degrade various pectic substances present in plant tissues. Pectinases have potential applications in fruit, paper and textile industries. Apart from these industrial applications, these enzymes possess biological importance in protoplast fusion technology and plant pathology. Since applications of pectinases in various fields are widening, it is important to understand the nature and properties of these enzymes for efficient and effective usage. For the past few years, vigorous research has been carried out on isolation and characterization of pectinases. New affinity matrices with improved characteristics and affinity-precipitation techniques have been developed for purification of pectinases. Recently much attention has been focused on chemical modification of pectinases and their catalytic performance by various researchers. These studies are helpful in determining key amino acid residues responsible for substrate binding, catalytic action, and physico-chemical environmental conditions for maximum hydrolysis. This short review highlights progress on purification and understanding the biochemical aspects of microbial pectinases.
TL;DR: The potential applications of esterase with reference to agriculture, food, and pharmaceutical industries, are discussed in this review.
Abstract: Esterase plays a major role in the degradation of natural materials and industrial pollutants, viz, cereal wastes, plastics, and other toxic chemicals It is useful in the synthesis of optically pure compounds, perfumes, and antioxidants The potential applications of esterase with reference to agriculture, food, and pharmaceutical industries, are discussed in this review Promising applications in this avenue can be supported by appropriate production strategies
TL;DR: Chitin, a homopolymer of N-acetylglucosamine, is obtained from a variety of sources and forms the structural component of fungal cell wall and plants.
Abstract: Chitin, a homopolymer of N-acetylglucosamine, is obtained from a variety of sources. They form the structural component of fungal cell wall and plants. They are commercially obtained from shrimp and crab shell waste from the fishing industry. Recent advances in understanding the structure and properties of chitin and its derivatives has opened a lot of new avenues for its applications. Improvements in the properties of chitin for a particular application can be easily brought about by chemical modifications. The applicability of chitin in many areas and its easy manipulation has resulted in a considerable amount of research being done on the possible applications of chitinase.
TL;DR: In this article, a review of the production of pectolytic enzymes using different carbon sources is presented and the effect of operating parameters such as temperature, aeration rate, agitation and type of fermentation is discussed.
Abstract: Pectolytic enzymes play an important role in food processing industries and alcoholic beverage industries. These enzymes degrade pectin and reduce the viscosity of the solution so that it can be handled easily. These enzymes are mainly synthesized by plants and microorganisms. Aspergillus niger is used for industrial production of pectolytic enzymes. This fungus produces polygalacturonase, polymethylgalacturonase and pectinlyase. This review mainly concerns with the production of pectolytic enzymes using different carbon sources. It also deals with the effect of operating parameters such as temperature, aeration rate, agitation and type of fermentation on the production of these enzymes.
TL;DR: The relevant literature to understand the morphology of filamentous fungi is reviewed, relating enzyme or product production to the character of the fungi in the study is reviewed.
Abstract: Filamentous fungi comprise an industrially very important collection of microorganisms, since they are used for the production of a wide variety of products ranging from primary metabolites to secondary metabolites and further on to industrial enzymes (such as proteases, lipases and antibiotics) It is known that fungal morphology is often considered as one of the key parameters in industrial production For the production of fungal metabolite products, the desired morphology varies from one product to another Many parameters affect the morphology of fungi during the process of fermentation, among them speed of agitation, specific growth rate, dissolved oxygen, number of spores or conidia per liter of fermentation broth are important and should be considered when higher yield is desired in the process It is, therefore, of considerable importance to understand the mechanism underlying the morphology of the cell, its growth and product formation by filamentous fungi Such knowledge may be used in the optimization of the microbial process Several literatures with various fungi to study their morphology, relating enzyme or product production to the character of the fungi in the study is reviewed It is also considered that how the process parameters affects the morphology The aim of this communication is to review the relevant literature to understand the morphology of filamentous fungi
TL;DR: This paper looked at some of the RSM articles published during the last few years to identify common mistakes made in the application and the limitations of RSM.
Abstract: Response surface methodology (RSM) is the most popular optimization method used in recent years. There are so many works based on the application of RSM in chemical and biochemical process. On the other hand, few articles were published about the limitation and usability of it. In this paper, we looked at some of the RSM articles published during the last few years. We tried to identify common mistakes made in the application and the limitations of RSM. We asked ourselves two important questions. These questions are “Can RSM be used for optimization of all chemical and biochemical processes without any limitation?” and “Is RSM usable for other purposes (determination of reaction kinetics, stability or evaluation of kinetic constants etc.) in addition to optimization?”. We were able to answer these questions based on the observations obtained from reviewed articles. We believe that the answers will be helpful for researchers, who will use RSM in their future studies.
TL;DR: Several selected pharmaceutical and biomedical applications are presented, in which chitin and chitosan are recognized as new biomaterials taking advantage of their biocompatibility and biodegradability.
Abstract: This review describes the most common methods for recovery of chitin from marine organisms. In depth, both enzymatic and chemical treatments for the step of deproteinization are compared, as well as different conditions for demineralization. The conditions of chitosan preparation are also discussed, since they significantly impact the synthesis of chitosan with varying degree of acetylation (DA) and molecular weight (MW). In addition, the main characterization techniques applied for chitin and chitosan are recalled, pointing out the role of their solubility in relation with the chemical structure (mainly the acetyl group distribution along the backbone). Biological activities are also presented, such as: antibacterial, antifungal, antitumor and antioxidant. Interestingly, the relationship between chemical structure and biological activity is demonstrated for chitosan molecules with different DA and MW and homogeneous distribution of acetyl groups for the first time. In the end, several selected pharmaceutical and biomedical applications are presented, in which chitin and chitosan are recognized as new biomaterials taking advantage of their biocompatibility and biodegradability.
TL;DR: A review of the literature on enzymes immobilized on chitin- and chitosan-based materials, covering the last decade, is presented in this paper, where one hundred fifty-eight papers on 63 immobilized enzymes for multiplicity of applications ranging from wine, sugar and fish industry, through organic compounds removal from wastewaters to sophisticated biosensors for both in situ measurements of environmental pollutants and metabolite control in artificial organs, are reviewed.
Abstract: As functional materials, chitin and chitosan offer a unique set of characteristics: biocompatibility, biodegradability to harmless products, nontoxicity, physiological inertness, antibacterial properties, heavy metal ions chelation, gel forming properties and hydrophilicity, and remarkable affinity to proteins. Owing to these characteristics, chitin- and chitosan-based materials, as yet underutilized, are predicted to be widely exploited in the near future especially in environmentally benign applications in systems working in biological environments, among others as enzyme immobilization supports. This paper is a review of the literature on enzymes immobilized on chitin- and chitosan-based materials, covering the last decade. One hundred fifty-eight papers on 63 immobilized enzymes for multiplicity of applications ranging from wine, sugar and fish industry, through organic compounds removal from wastewaters to sophisticated biosensors for both in situ measurements of environmental pollutants and metabolite control in artificial organs, are reviewed.
TL;DR: Chemistries that Facilitate Nanotechnology Kim E. Sapsford,† W. Russ Algar, Lorenzo Berti, Kelly Boeneman Gemmill,‡ Brendan J. Casey,† Eunkeu Oh, Michael H. Stewart, and Igor L. Medintz .
Abstract: Chemistries that Facilitate Nanotechnology Kim E. Sapsford,† W. Russ Algar, Lorenzo Berti, Kelly Boeneman Gemmill,‡ Brendan J. Casey,† Eunkeu Oh, Michael H. Stewart, and Igor L. Medintz*,‡ †Division of Biology, Department of Chemistry and Materials Science, Office of Science and Engineering Laboratories, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland 20993, United States ‡Center for Bio/Molecular Science and Engineering Code 6900 and Division of Optical Sciences Code 5611, U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. 20375, United States College of Science, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, Virginia 22030, United States Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, University of California, Davis, School of Medicine, Sacramento, California 95817, United States Sotera Defense Solutions, Crofton, Maryland 21114, United States
TL;DR: It is believed that silver nanoparticles can be engineered so as to increase their efficacy, stability, specificity, biosafety and biocompatibility, and ascertaining the susceptibility of cytoxicity, genotoxicity, and inflammatory response to human cells upon AgNPs exposure.
Abstract: Multidrug resistance of the pathogenic microorganisms to the antimicrobial drugs has become a major impediment toward successful diagnosis and management of infectious diseases. Recent advancements in nanotechnology-based medicines have opened new horizons for combating multidrug resistance in microorganisms. In particular, the use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as a potent antibacterial agent has received much attention. The most critical physico-chemical parameters that affect the antimicrobial potential of AgNPs include size, shape, surface charge, concentration and colloidal state. AgNPs exhibits their antimicrobial potential through multifaceted mechanisms. AgNPs adhesion to microbial cells, penetration inside the cells, ROS and free radical generation, and modulation of microbial signal transduction pathways have been recognized as the most prominent modes of antimicrobial action. On the other side, AgNPs exposure to human cells induces cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and inflammatory response in human cells in a cell-type dependent manner. This has raised concerns regarding use of AgNPs in therapeutics and drug delivery. We have summarized the emerging endeavors that address current challenges in relation to safe use of AgNPs in therapeutics and drug delivery platforms. Based on research done so far, we believe that AgNPs can be engineered so as to increase their efficacy, stability, specificity, biosafety and biocompatibility. In this regard, three perspectives research directions have been suggested that include 1) synthesizing AgNPs with controlled physico-chemical properties, 2) examining microbial development of resistance towards AgNPs, and 3) ascertaining the susceptibility of cytoxicity, genotoxicity, and inflammatory response to human cells upon AgNPs exposure.