Bio: Taroh Matsuno is an academic researcher from Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory. The author has contributed to research in topics: Polar vortex & Potential vorticity. The author has an hindex of 1, co-authored 1 publications receiving 978 citations.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors discussed the dynamics of the stratosphere sudden warming phenomenon in terms of the interaction of vertically propagating planetary waves with zonal winds, and verified the model by numerical integrations of the adiabatic-geostrophic potential vorticity equation.
Abstract: The dynamics of the stratosphere sudden warming phenomenon is discussed in terms of the interaction of vertically propagating planetary waves with zonal winds. If global-scale disturbances are generated in the troposphere, they propagate upward into the stratosphere, where the waves act to decelerate the polar night jet through the induction of a meridional circulation. Thus, the distortion and the break-down of the polar vortex occur. If the disturbance is intense and persists, the westerly jet may eventually disappear and an easterly wind may replace it. Then “critical layer interaction” takes place. Further intensification of the easterly wind and rapid warming of the polar air are expected to occur as well as weakening of the disturbance. The model is verified by numerical integrations of the adiabatic-geostrophic potential vorticity equation. Computed results possess features similar to those observed in sudden warming phenomena.
TL;DR: A long-term global atmospheric reanalysis, named "Japanese 25-year Reanalysis (JRA-25) was completed using the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) numerical assimilation and forecast system.
Abstract: A long-term global atmospheric reanalysis, named “Japanese 25-year Reanalysis (JRA-25)” was completed using the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) numerical assimilation and forecast system. The analysis covers the period from 1979 to 2004. This is the first long-term reanalysis undertaken in Asia. JMA's latest numerical assimilation system, and specially collected observational data, were used to generate a consistent and high-quality reanalysis dataset designed for climate research and operational monitoring and forecasts. One of the many purposes of JRA-25 is to enhance the analysis to a high quality in the Asian region.Six-hourly data assimilation cycles were performed, producing 6-hourly atmospheric analysis and forecast fields of various physical variables. The global model used in JRA-25 has a spectral resolution of T106 (equivalent to a horizontal grid size of around 120 km) and 40 vertical layers with the top level at 0.4 hPa. In addition to conventional surface and upper air observations, atmospheric motion vector (AMV) wind retrieved from geostationary satellites, brightness temperature from TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS), precipitable water retrieved from orbital satellite microwave radiometer radiance and other satellite data are assimilated with three-dimensional variational method (3D-Var). JMA produced daily sea surface temperature (SST), sea ice and three-dimensional ozone profiles for JRA-25. A new quality control method for TOVS data was developed and applied in advance.Many advantages have been found in the JRA-25 reanalysis. Predicted 6-hour global total precipitation distribution and amount are well reproduced both in space and time. The performance of the long time series of the global precipitation is the best among the other reanalyses, with few unrealistic variations from degraded satellite data contaminated by volcanic eruptions. Secondly, JRA-25 is the first reanalysis to assimilate wind profiles around tropical cyclones reconstructed from historical best track information; tropical cyclones were analyzed properly in all the global regions. Additionally, low-level cloud along the subtropical western coast of continents is well simulated and snow depth analysis is also of a good quality. The article also covers material which requires attention when using JRA-25.
TL;DR: In this paper, all major midwinter stratospheric warming events are identified and classified, in both the NCEP-NCAR and 40-yr ECMWF Re-Analysis (ERA-40) datasets.
Abstract: Stratospheric sudden warmings are the clearest and strongest manifestation of dynamical coupling in the stratosphere–troposphere system. While many sudden warmings have been individually documented in the literature, this study aims at constructing a comprehensive climatology: all major midwinter warming events are identified and classified, in both the NCEP–NCAR and 40-yr ECMWF Re-Analysis (ERA-40) datasets. To accomplish this a new, objective identification algorithm is developed. This algorithm identifies sudden warmings based on the zonal mean zonal wind at 60°N and 10 hPa, and classifies them into events that do and do not split the stratospheric polar vortex. Major midwinter stratospheric sudden warmings are found to occur with a frequency of approximately six events per decade, and 46% of warming events lead to a splitting of the stratospheric polar vortex. The dynamics of vortex splitting events is contrasted to that of events where the vortex is merely displaced off the pole. In the stratosphere, the two types of events are found to be dynamically distinct: vortex splitting events occur after a clear preconditioning of the polar vortex, and their influence on middle-stratospheric temperatures lasts for up to 20 days longer than vortex displacement events. In contrast, the influence of sudden warmings on the tropospheric state is found to be largely insensitive to the event type. Finally, a table of dynamical benchmarks for major stratospheric sudden warming events is compiled. These benchmarks are used in a companion study to evaluate current numerical model simulations of the stratosphere.
TL;DR: In this article, an exact and very general Lagrangian-mean description of the back effect of oscillatory disturbances upon the mean state is given, which applies to any problem whose governing equations are given in the usual Eulerian form, and irrespective of whether spatial, temporal, ensemble, or two-timing averages are appropriate.
Abstract: An exact and very general Lagrangian-mean description of the back effect of oscillatory disturbances upon the mean state is given. The basic formalism applies to any problem whose governing equations are given in the usual Eulerian form, and irrespective of whether spatial, temporal, ensemble, or ‘two-timing’ averages are appropriate. The generalized Lagrangian-mean velocity cannot be defined exactly as the ‘mean following a single fluid particle’, but in cases where spatial averages are taken can easily be visualized, for instance, as the motion of the centre of mass of a tube of fluid particles which lay along the direction of averaging in a hypothetical initial state of no disturbance.The equations for the Lagrangian-mean flow are more useful than their Eulerian-mean counterparts in significant respects, for instance in explicitly representing the effect upon mean-flow evolution of wave dissipation or forcing. Applications to irrotational acoustic or water waves, and to astrogeophysical problems of waves on axisymmetric mean flows are discussed. In the latter context the equations embody generalizations of the Eliassen-Palm and Charney-Drazin theorems showing the effects on the mean flow of departures from steady, conservative waves, for arbitrary, finite-amplitude disturbances to a stratified, rotating fluid, with allowance for self-gravitation as well as for an external gravitational field.The equations show generally how the pseudomomentum (or wave ‘momentum’) enters problems of mean-flow evolution. They also indicate the extent to which the net effect of the waves on the mean flow can be described by a ‘radiation stress’, and provide a general framework for explaining the asymmetry of radiation-stress tensors along the lines proposed by Jones (1973).
TL;DR: A review of recent advances in the understanding of gravity wave saturation in the middle atmosphere can be found in this article, where a brief discussion of the studies leading to the identification of the gravity wave effects and their role in middle atmosphere dynamics is presented.
Abstract: This paper provides a review of recent advances in our understanding of gravity wave saturation in the middle atmosphere. A brief discussion of those studies leading to the identification of gravity wave effects and their role in middle atmosphere dynamics is presented first. This is followed by a simple development of the linear saturation theory to illustrate the principal effects. Recent extensions to the linear saturation theory, including quasi-linear, nonlinear, and transient effects, are then described. Those studies addressing the role of gravity wave saturation in the mean circulation of the middle atmosphere are also discussed. Finally, observations of gravity wave motions, distribution, and variability and those measurements specifically addressing gravity wave saturation are reviewed.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors examined the evolution of the atmospheric flow and wave fluxes at levels throughout the stratosphere and troposphere during the composite life cycle of a sudden stratospheric warming.
Abstract: Motivated by recent evidence of strong stratospheric‐tropospheric coupling during the Northern Hemisphere winter, this study examines the evolution of the atmospheric flow and wave fluxes at levels throughout the stratosphere and troposphere during the composite life cycle of a sudden stratospheric warming. The composite comprises 39 major and minor warming events using 44 years of NCEP‐NCAR reanalysis data. The incipient stage of the life cycle is characterized by preconditioning of the stratospheric zonal flow and anomalous, quasistationary wavenumber-1 forcing in both the stratosphere and troposphere. As the life cycle intensifies, planetary wave driving gives rise to weakening of the stratospheric polar vortex and downward propagation of the attendant easterly wind and positive temperature anomalies. When these anomalies reach the tropopause, the life cycle is marked by momentum flux and mean meridional circulation anomalies at tropospheric levels that are consistent with the negative phase of the Northern Hemisphere annular mode. The anomalous momentum fluxes are largest over the Atlantic half of the hemisphere and are associated primarily with waves of wavenumber 3 and higher.