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Author

Tetsuro Oshika

Other affiliations: University of Tokyo
Bio: Tetsuro Oshika is an academic researcher from University of Tsukuba. The author has contributed to research in topics: Intraocular lens & Cataract surgery. The author has an hindex of 62, co-authored 531 publications receiving 14681 citations. Previous affiliations of Tetsuro Oshika include University of Tokyo.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Both photorefractive keratectomy and laser in situ keratomileusis increase the wavefront aberrations of the cornea and change the relative contribution of coma- and spherical-like aberration.

429 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The current 5-year follow-up study indicated that OK can suppress axial length elongation in childhood myopia.
Abstract: METHODS. There were 59 subjects enrolled in this study. The OK group comprised 29 subjects who matched the inclusion criteria for OK. The control group comprised 30 subjects who also matched the inclusion criteria for OK, but preferred spectacles for myopia correction. Axial length was measured periodically for 5 years using an IOLMaster device, and the time course of changes was evaluated and compared between the groups. RESULTS. A total of 43 subjects (22 and 21 in the OK and control groups, respectively) completed the 5-year follow-up examinations. At baseline, the mean age 6 SD was 10.04 6 1.43 and 9.95 6 1.59 years, the spherical equivalent refractive error was � 1.89 6 0.82 and � 1.83 6 1.06 diopters (D), and the axial length was 24.09 6 0.77 and 24.22 6 0.71 mm in the OK and control groups, respectively, with no significant differences between the groups. The increase in axial length during the 5year study period was 0.99 6 0.47 and 1.41 6 0.68 mm for the OK and control groups, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (P ¼ 0.0236, unpaired t-test). The annual increases in axial length were significantly different between the groups for the first (P ¼ 0.0002), second (P ¼ 0.0476), and third years (P ¼ 0.0385), but not for the fourth (P ¼ 0.0938) and fifth (P ¼ 0.8633) years. There were no severe complications throughout the study period. CONCLUSIONS. The current 5-year follow-up study indicated that OK can suppress axial length elongation in childhood myopia. (Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:3913‐3919) DOI: 10.1167/iovs.11-8453

328 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: OK suppressed axial elongation in myopic children, suggesting that this treatment can slow the progression of myopia to a certain extent.
Abstract: Purpose This prospective study was conducted to assess the influence of overnight orthokeratology (OK) on axial elongation in children, with those wearing spectacles as controls. Methods One hundred five subjects (210 eyes) were enrolled in the study. The OK group comprised 45 patients (90 eyes, age 12.1 ± 2.5 years, mean ± SD; OK group) who matched the inclusion criteria for OK. The control group comprised 60 patients (120 eyes, 11.9 ± 2.0 years) who also matched the inclusion criteria for OK but preferred spectacles for myopia correction. Axial length was measured at baseline and after 2 years using ocular biometry, and the changes were evaluated and compared between the groups. Results Ninety-two subjects (42 and 50 in the OK and control groups, respectively) completed the 2-year follow-up examinations. At baseline, the spherical equivalent refractive error was -2.55 ± 1.82 and -2.59 ± 1.66 D, and the axial length was 24.66 ± 1.11 and 24.79 ± 0.80 mm in the OK and control groups, respectively, with no significant differences between the groups. The increase in axial length during the 2-year study period was 0.39 ± 0.27 and 0.61 ± 0.24 mm, respectively, and the difference was significant (P Conclusions OK suppressed axial elongation in myopic children, suggesting that this treatment can slow the progression of myopia to a certain extent.

319 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: Comalike aberrations of the cornea correlate with age, implying that the corneas become less symmetrical along with aging.
Abstract: PURPOSE. To investigate whether corneal wavefront aberrations vary with aging. METHODS. One hundred two eyes of 102 normal subjects were evaluated with videokeratography. The data were decomposed using Taylor and Zernike polynomials to calculate the monochromatic aberrations of the cornea for both small (3-mm) and large (7-mm) pupils. RESULTS. For a 3-mm pupil, the amount of total aberrations (Spearman rank correlation coefficient r s = 0.145; P = 0.103) and spherical-like aberrations (r s = -0.068; P = 0.448) did not change with aging, whereas comalike aberrations exhibited a weak but statistically significant correlation with age (r s = 0.256; P = 0.004). For a 7-mm pupil, total aberrations (r s = 0.552; P < 0.001) and comalike aberrations (r s = 0.561; P < 0.001) significantly increased with aging, but spherical-like aberrations showed no age-related changes (r s = 0.124; P = 0.166). Simulated pupillary dilation from 3 mm to 7 mm caused a 38.0 ± 28.5-fold increase in the total aberrations, and the extent of increases significantly correlated with age (r s = 0.354; P < 0.001). Pupillary dilation influenced the comalike aberrations more in the older subjects than in the younger subjects (r s = 0.243; P = 0.006), but such age dependence was not found for spherical-like aberrations (r s = 0.141; P = 0.115). CONCLUSIONS. Comalike aberrations of the cornea correlate with age, implying that the corneas become less symmetrical along with aging. Spherical-like aberrations do not vary significantly with aging. Pupillary dilation markedly increases wavefront aberrations, and those effects are more prominent in older subjects than in younger subjects.

243 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Conventional LASIK significantly increases ocular higher-order aberrations, which compromise the postoperative contrast sensitivity function, and induced changes in AULCSF showed significant correlations with changes in total higher- order (Pearson r=-0.221, P=0.003), coma-like (r-0.201, P =0.007), and spherical-like
Abstract: PURPOSE. To investigate prospectively the relation between induced changes in higher-order aberrations of the eye and changes in contrast sensitivity by conventional laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) for myopia. METHODS. In 200 eyes of 110 consecutive patients (mean age, 32.7 8.4 years) undergoing LASIK, ocular aberrations and contrast sensitivity function were determined before and 1 month after surgery. The amount of myopic correction was 5.2 2.8 D (range, 1.0 –13.0). Ocular higher-order aberrations were measured for a 4-mm pupil using the Hartmann-Shack wavefront analyzer (KR-9000PW; Topcon, Tokyo, Japan). The root mean square (RMS) of the third- and fourth-order Zernike coefficients was used to represent coma- and spherical-like aberrations, respectively. Total higher-order aberrations were calculated as the RMS of the third- and fourth-order coefficients. Contrast sensitivity and low-contrast visual acuity were measured. From the contrast sensitivity data, the area under the log contrast sensitivity function (AULCSF) was calculated. RESULTS. LASIK significantly improved logMAR best corrected visual acuity (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, P 0.001), but significantly reduced AULCSF (P 0.001) and low-contrast visual acuity (P 0.007). Total higher-order (P 0.001), coma-like (P 0.001), and spherical-like (P 0.001) aberrations were significantly increased after LASIK. The greater the amount of achieved myopia correction was, the more the changes in contrast sensitivity function and ocular higher-order aberrations were. The induced changes in AULCSF by LASIK showed significant correlations with changes in total higher-order (Pearson r 0.221, P 0.003), coma-like (r 0.205, P 0.006), and spherical-like (r 0.171, P 0.022) aberrations. The changes in logMAR low-contrast visual acuity by surgery significantly correlated with changes in total higher-order (r 0.222, P 0.003), coma-like (r 0.201, P 0.007), and spherical-like (r 0.207, P 0.005) aberrations. CONCLUSIONS. Conventional LASIK significantly increases ocular higher-order aberrations, which compromise the postoperative contrast sensitivity function. (Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2004; 45:3986 –3990) DOI:10.1167/iovs.04-0629

235 citations


Cited by
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Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 1997
TL;DR: The boundary layer equations for plane, incompressible, and steady flow are described in this paper, where the boundary layer equation for plane incompressibility is defined in terms of boundary layers.
Abstract: The boundary layer equations for plane, incompressible, and steady flow are $$\matrix{ {u{{\partial u} \over {\partial x}} + v{{\partial u} \over {\partial y}} = - {1 \over \varrho }{{\partial p} \over {\partial x}} + v{{{\partial ^2}u} \over {\partial {y^2}}},} \cr {0 = {{\partial p} \over {\partial y}},} \cr {{{\partial u} \over {\partial x}} + {{\partial v} \over {\partial y}} = 0.} \cr }$$

2,598 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The NLRP3 inflammasome mediates pro-inflammatory responses and pyroptotic cell death and how it is being targeted to treat inflammatory diseases is described.
Abstract: NLRP3 (NOD-, LRR- and pyrin domain-containing protein 3) is an intracellular sensor that detects a broad range of microbial motifs, endogenous danger signals and environmental irritants, resulting in the formation and activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Assembly of the NLRP3 inflammasome leads to caspase 1-dependent release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18, as well as to gasdermin D-mediated pyroptotic cell death. Recent studies have revealed new regulators of the NLRP3 inflammasome, including new interacting or regulatory proteins, metabolic pathways and a regulatory mitochondrial hub. In this Review, we present the molecular, cell biological and biochemical bases of NLRP3 activation and regulation and describe how this mechanistic understanding is leading to potential therapeutics that target the NLRP3 inflammasome.

2,097 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, the diffraction tomography theorem is adapted to one-dimensional length measurement and the resulting spectral interferometry technique is described and the first length measurements using this technique on a model eye and on a human eye in vivo are presented.
Abstract: The diffraction tomography theorem is adapted to one-dimensional length measurement. The resulting spectral interferometry technique is described and the first length measurements using this technique on a model eye and on a human eye in vivo are presented.

1,237 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In the case of aircraft components, AM technology enables low-volume manufacturing, easy integration of design changes and, at least as importantly, piece part reductions to greatly simplify product assembly.
Abstract: The past few decades have seen substantial growth in Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies. However, this growth has mainly been process-driven. The evolution of engineering design to take advantage of the possibilities afforded by AM and to manage the constraints associated with the technology has lagged behind. This paper presents the major opportunities, constraints, and economic considerations for Design for Additive Manufacturing. It explores issues related to design and redesign for direct and indirect AM production. It also highlights key industrial applications, outlines future challenges, and identifies promising directions for research and the exploitation of AM's full potential in industry.

1,132 citations