Thaddeus K. Graczyk
Other affiliations: Makerere University
Bio: Thaddeus K. Graczyk is an academic researcher from Johns Hopkins University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Cryptosporidium parvum & Cryptosporidium. The author has an hindex of 44, co-authored 135 publications receiving 5745 citations. Previous affiliations of Thaddeus K. Graczyk include Makerere University.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The feeding and reproductive habits of non-biting synanthropic flies make them important mechanical vectors of human pathogens.
Abstract: The feeding and reproductive habits of non-biting synanthropic flies make them important mechanical vectors of human pathogens. Synanthropic flies are major epidemiologic factors responsible for the spread of acute gastroenteritis and trachoma among infants and young children in (predominantly) developing countries. House flies are involved in mechanical transmission of nosocomial infections with multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria in hospital environments.
TL;DR: The filthy breeding habits, feeding mechanisms, and indiscriminate travel between filth and food make some groups of synanthropic insects such as nonbiting flies and cockroaches efficient vectors of human enteric protozoan parasites.
Abstract: The filthy breeding habits, feeding mechanisms, and indiscriminate travel between filth and food make some groups of synanthropic insects such as nonbiting flies and cockroaches efficient vectors of human enteric protozoan parasites. Twenty-one species of filth flies have been listed by regulatory agencies concerned with sanitation and public health as causative agents of gastrointestinal diseases based on synanthropy, endophily, communicative behavior, and strong attraction to filth and human food. Outbreaks and cases of food-borne diarrheal diseases in urban and rural areas are closely related to the seasonal increase in abundance of filth flies, and enforced fly control is closely related to reductions in the occurrence of such diseases. Mechanical transmission of human parasites by nonbiting flies and epidemiological involvement of other synanthropic insects in human food-borne diseases have not received adequate scientific attention.
01 Jan 2003
TL;DR: Fecal droppings of migratory Canada geese, Branta canadensis, collected from nine sites near the Chesapeake Bay, were examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia spp.
Abstract: Fecal droppings of migratory Canada geese, Branta canadensis, collected from nine sites near the Chesapeake Bay (Maryland), were examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia spp. Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts were found in feces at seven of nine sites, and Giardia cysts were found at all nine sites. The oocysts from three sites were infectious for mice and molecularly identified as the zoonotic genotype of Cryptosporidium parvum. Waterfowl can disseminate infectious C. parvum oocysts in the environment.
TL;DR: This review examines food-borne intestinal trematodiases associated with species in families of the Digenea related to Echinostomatidae and Heterophyidae, and emphasis in the review is placed on species in these families.
Abstract: Food-borne trematodiases still remain a public health problem world-wide, despite changes in eating habits, alterations in social and agricultural practices, health education, industrialization, environmental alteration, and broad-spectrum anthelmintics. Food-borne trematodiases usually occur focally, are still persistently endemic in some parts of the world, and are most prevalent in remote rural places among school-age children, low-wage earners, and women of child-bearing age. Intestinal fluke diseases are aggravated by socio-economic factors such as poverty, malnutrition, an explosively growing free-food market, a lack of sufficient food inspection and sanitation, other helminthiases, and declining economic conditions. Control programs implemented for food-borne zoonoses and sustained in endemic areas are not fully successful for intestinal food-borne trematodiases because of centuries-old traditions of eating raw or insufficiently cooked food, widespread zoonotic reservoirs, promiscuous defecation, and the use of “night soil” (human excrement collected from latrines) as fertilizer. This review examines food-borne intestinal trematodiases associated with species in families of the Digenea: Brachylaimidae, Diplostomidae, Echinostomatidae, Fasciolidae, Gastrodiscidae, Gymnophallidae, Heterophyidae, Lecithodendriidae, Microphallidae, Nanophyetidae, Paramphistomatidae, Plagiorchiidae, and Strigeidae. Because most of the implicated species are in the Echinostomatidae and Heterophyidae, emphasis in the review is placed on species in these families.
TL;DR: The combined effects of environmentally detrimental changes in local land use and alterations in global climate disrupt the natural ecosystem and can increase the risk of transmission of parasitic diseases to the human population.
Abstract: Ecological disturbances exert an influence on the emergence and proliferation of malaria and zoonotic parasitic diseases, including, Leishmaniasis, cryptosporidiosis, giardiasis, trypanosomiasis, schistosomiasis, filariasis, onchocerciasis, and loiasis. Each environmental change, whether occurring as a natural phenomenon or through human intervention, changes the ecological balance and context within which disease hosts or vectors and parasites breed, develop, and transmit disease. Each species occupies a particular ecological niche and vector species sub-populations are distinct behaviourally and genetically as they adapt to man-made environments. Most zoonotic parasites display three distinct life cycles: sylvatic, zoonotic, and anthroponotic. In adapting to changed environmental conditions, including reduced nonhuman population and increased human population, some vectors display conversion from a primarily zoophyllic to primarily anthrophyllic orientation. Deforestation and ensuing changes in landuse, human settlement, commercial development, road construction, water control systems (dams, canals, irrigation systems, reservoirs), and climate, singly, and in combination have been accompanied by global increases in morbidity and mortality from emergent parasitic disease. The replacement of forests with crop farming, ranching, and raising small animals can create supportive habitats for parasites and their host vectors. When the landuse of deforested areas changes, the pattern of human settlement is altered and habitat fragmentation may provide opportunities for exchange and transmission of parasites to the heretofore uninfected humans. Construction of water control projects can lead to shifts in such vector populations as snails and mosquitoes and their parasites. Construction of roads in previously inaccessible forested areas can lead to erosion, and stagnant ponds by blocking the flow of streams when the water rises during the rainy season. The combined effects of environmentally detrimental changes in local landuse and alterations in global climate disrupt the natural ecosystem and can increase the risk of transmission of parasitic diseases to the human population. q 2000 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
TL;DR: The authors' efforts in characterizing the molecular epidemiology of giardiasis are compromised by the lack of case-control and longitudinal cohort studies and the sampling and testing of humans and animals living in the same community, the frequent occurrence of infections with mixed genotypes and subtypes.
Abstract: Summary: Molecular diagnostic tools have been used recently in assessing the taxonomy, zoonotic potential, and transmission of Giardia species and giardiasis in humans and animals. The results of these studies have firmly established giardiasis as a zoonotic disease, although host adaptation at the genotype and subtype levels has reduced the likelihood of zoonotic transmission. These studies have also identified variations in the distribution of Giardia duodenalis genotypes among geographic areas and between domestic and wild ruminants and differences in clinical manifestations and outbreak potentials of assemblages A and B. Nevertheless, our efforts in characterizing the molecular epidemiology of giardiasis and the roles of various animals in the transmission of human giardiasis are compromised by the lack of case-control and longitudinal cohort studies and the sampling and testing of humans and animals living in the same community, the frequent occurrence of infections with mixed genotypes and subtypes, and the apparent heterozygosity at some genetic loci for some G. duodenalis genotypes. With the increased usage of multilocus genotyping tools, the development of next-generation subtyping tools, the integration of molecular analysis in epidemiological studies, and an improved understanding of the population genetics of G. duodenalis in humans and animals, we should soon have a better appreciation of the molecular epidemiology of giardiasis, the disease burden of zoonotic transmission, the taxonomy status and virulences of various G. duodenalis genotypes, and the ecology of environmental contamination.
TL;DR: The statistically significant association found between rainfall and disease in the United States is important for water managers, public health officials, and risk assessors of future climate change.
Abstract: Objectives. Rainfall and runoff have been implicated in site-specific waterborne disease outbreaks. Because upward trends in heavy precipitation in the United States are projected to increase with climate change, this study sought to quantify the relationship between precipitation and disease outbreaks. Methods. The US Environmental Protection Agency waterborne disease database, totaling 548 reported outbreaks from 1948 through 1994, and precipitation data of the National Climatic Data Center were used to analyze the relationship between precipitation and waterborne diseases. Analyses were at the watershed level, stratified by groundwater and surface water contamination and controlled for effects due to season and hydrologic region. A Monte Carlo version of the Fisher exact test was used to test for statistical significance. Results. Fifty-one percent of waterborne disease outbreaks were preceded by precipitation events above the 90th percentile (P = .002), and 68% by events above the 80th percentile (P = .001). Outbreaks due to surface water contamination showed the strongest association with extreme precipitation during the month of the outbreak; a 2-month lag applied to groundwater contamination events. Conclusions. The statistically significant association found between rainfall and disease in the United States is important for water managers, public health officials, and risk assessors of future climate change. (Am J Public Health. 2001;91:1194‐1199)
TL;DR: This paper reviews the valid species of Cryptosporidium, their hosts and morphometrics; the reported hosts for the human pathogen, C. parvum; the mechanisms of transmission; the drinking water, recreational water, and food-borne outbreaks resulting from infection with C.parvum%; and the microscopic, immunological, and molecular methods used to detect and identify species and genotypes.
Abstract: There are 10 valid species of Cryptosporidium and perhaps other cryptic species hidden under the umbrella of Cryptosporidium parvum. The oocyst stage is of primary importance for the dispersal, survival, and infectivity of the parasite and is of major importance for detection and identification. Because most oocysts measure 4-6 microm, appear nearly spherical, and have obscure internal structures, there are few or no morphometric features to differentiate species and in vitro cultivation does not provide differential data as for bacteria. Consequently, we rely on a combination of data from three tools: morphometrics, molecular techniques, and host specificity. Of 152 species of mammals reported to be infected with C. parvum or an indistinguishable organism, very few oocysts have ever been examined using more than one of these tools. This paper reviews the valid species of Cryptosporidium, their hosts and morphometrics; the reported hosts for the human pathogen, C. parvum; the mechanisms of transmission; the drinking water, recreational water, and food-borne outbreaks resulting from infection with C. parvum; and the microscopic, immunological, and molecular methods used to detect and identify species and genotypes.
TL;DR: A review of the biologic species concept, the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN), and current practices for Cryptosporidium species designation calls for the establishment of guidelines for naming Cryptospora species.
Abstract: There has been an explosion of descriptions of new species of Cryptosporidium during the last two decades. This has been accompanied by confusion regarding the criteria for species designation, largely because of the lack of distinct morphologic differences and strict host specificity among Cryptosporidium spp. A review of the biologic species concept, the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN), and current practices for Cryptosporidium species designation calls for the establishment of guidelines for naming Cryptosporidium species. All reports of new Cryptosporidium species should include at least four basic components: oocyst morphology, natural host specificity, genetic characterizations, and compliance with the ICZN. Altogether, 13 Cryptosporidium spp. are currently recognized: C. muris, C. andersoni, C. parvum, C. hominis, C. wrairi, C. felis, and C. cannis in mammals; C. baileyi, C. meleagridis, and C. galli in birds; C. serpentis and C. saurophilum in reptiles; and C. molnari in fish. With the establishment of a framework for naming Cryptosporidium species and the availability of new taxonomic tools, there should be less confusion associated with the taxonomy of the genus Cryptosporidium. The clarification of Cryptosporidium taxonomy is also useful for understanding the biology of Cryptosporidium spp., assessing the public health significance of Cryptosporidium spp. in animals and the environment, characterizing transmission dynamics, and tracking infection and contamination sources.