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Thirumalachari Sundararajan

Bio: Thirumalachari Sundararajan is an academic researcher from Indian Institute of Technology Madras. The author has contributed to research in topics: Heat transfer & Reynolds number. The author has an hindex of 38, co-authored 217 publications receiving 8363 citations. Previous affiliations of Thirumalachari Sundararajan include Indian Institutes of Technology & Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The International Nanofluid Property Benchmark Exercise (INPBE) as mentioned in this paper was held in 1998, where the thermal conductivity of identical samples of colloidally stable dispersions of nanoparticles or "nanofluids" was measured by over 30 organizations worldwide, using a variety of experimental approaches, including the transient hot wire method, steady state methods, and optical methods.
Abstract: This article reports on the International Nanofluid Property Benchmark Exercise, or INPBE, in which the thermal conductivity of identical samples of colloidally stable dispersions of nanoparticles or “nanofluids,” was measured by over 30 organizations worldwide, using a variety of experimental approaches, including the transient hot wire method, steady-state methods, and optical methods. The nanofluids tested in the exercise were comprised of aqueous and nonaqueous basefluids, metal and metal oxide particles, near-spherical and elongated particles, at low and high particle concentrations. The data analysis reveals that the data from most organizations lie within a relatively narrow band (±10% or less) about the sample average with only few outliers. The thermal conductivity of the nanofluids was found to increase with particle concentration and aspect ratio, as expected from classical theory. There are (small) systematic differences in the absolute values of the nanofluid thermal conductivity among the various experimental approaches; however, such differences tend to disappear when the data are normalized to the measured thermal conductivity of the basefluid. The effective medium theory developed for dispersed particles by Maxwell in 1881 and recently generalized by Nan et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 81, 6692 (1997)], was found to be in good agreement with the experimental data, suggesting that no anomalous enhancement of thermal conductivity was achieved in the nanofluids tested in this exercise.

942 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: The International Nanofluid Property Benchmark Exercise (INPBE) as discussed by the authors was held in 1998, where the thermal conductivity of identical samples of colloidally stable dispersions of nanoparticles or "nanofluids" was measured by over 30 organizations worldwide, using a variety of experimental approaches, including the transient hot wire method, steady state methods, and optical methods.
Abstract: This article reports on the International Nanofluid Property Benchmark Exercise, or INPBE, in which the thermal conductivity of identical samples of colloidally stable dispersions of nanoparticles or “nanofluids,” was measured by over 30 organizations worldwide, using a variety of experimental approaches, including the transient hot wire method, steady-state methods, and optical methods. The nanofluids tested in the exercise were comprised of aqueous and nonaqueous basefluids, metal and metal oxide particles, near-spherical and elongated particles, at low and high particle concentrations. The data analysis reveals that the data from most organizations lie within a relatively narrow band (±10% or less) about the sample average with only few outliers. The thermal conductivity of the nanofluids was found to increase with particle concentration and aspect ratio, as expected from classical theory. There are (small) systematic differences in the absolute values of the nanofluid thermal conductivity among the various experimental approaches; however, such differences tend to disappear when the data are normalized to the measured thermal conductivity of the basefluid. The effective medium theory developed for dispersed particles by Maxwell in 1881 and recently generalized by Nan et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 81, 6692 (1997)], was found to be in good agreement with the experimental data, suggesting that no anomalous enhancement of thermal conductivity was achieved in the nanofluids tested in this exercise.

881 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors measured the thermal conductivities of two kinds of Au nanoparticles in water and toluene media and found that they showed thermal conductivity enhancement of 5% -21% in the temperature range of 30-60°C at a loading of 0.000 -1.011%.
Abstract: Thermal conductivities of two kinds of Au nanoparticles were measured in water and toluene media. The water soluble particles, 10–20 nm in mean diameter, made with citrate stabilization showed thermal conductivity enhancement of 5%–21% in the temperature range of 30–60 °C at a loading of 0.000 26 (by volume). The effect was 7%–14% for Au particles stabilized with a monolayer of octadecanethiol even for a loading of 0.011%. Comparatively lower thermal conductivity enhancement was observed for larger diameter Ag particles for significantly higher loading. Effective enhancement of 9%, even at vanishing concentrations, points to additional factors in the thermal conductivity mechanism in nanofluids. Results also point to important chemical factors such as the need for direct contact of the metal surface with the solvent medium to improve enhancement.

755 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the effect of particle size on convective heat transfer in laminar developing region was evaluated with alumina-water nanofluids in tube flow with constant heat flux.

528 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A moving particle model developed from the Stokes-Einstein formula explains the temperature effect and predictions from the combined model agree with the experimentally observed values of conductivity enhancement of nanofluids.
Abstract: A comprehensive model has been proposed to account for the large enhancement of thermal conductivity in nanofluids and its strong temperature dependence, which the classical Maxwellian theory has been unable to explain. The dependence of thermal conductivity on particle size, concentration, and temperature has been taken care of simultaneously in our treatment. While the geometrical effect of an increase in surface area with a decrease in particle size, rationalized using a stationary particle model, accounts for the conductivity enhancement, a moving particle model developed from the Stokes-Einstein formula explains the temperature effect. Predictions from the combined model agree with the experimentally observed values of conductivity enhancement of nanofluids.

528 citations


Cited by
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01 Jun 2005

3,154 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the status of worldwide research in the thermal conductivity of carbon nanotubes and their polymer nanocomposites is reviewed, as well as the relationship between thermal conductivities and the micro- and nano-structure of the composites.

2,102 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A review on fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids in forced and free convection flows is presented in this article, where the authors identify opportunities for future research.

1,988 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It has been found nan ofluids have a much higher and strongly temperature-dependent thermal conductivity at very low particle concentrations than conventional fluids, which can be considered as one of the key parameters for enhanced performances for many of the applications of nanofluids.
Abstract: Nanofluids are potential heat transfer fluids with enhanced thermophysical properties and heat transfer performance can be applied in many devices for better performances (i.e. energy, heat transfer and other performances). In this paper, a comprehensive literature on the applications and challenges of nanofluids have been compiled and reviewed. Latest up to date literatures on the applications and challenges in terms of PhD and Master thesis, journal articles, conference proceedings, reports and web materials have been reviewed and reported. Recent researches have indicated that substitution of conventional coolants by nanofluids appears promising. Specific application of nanofluids in engine cooling, solar water heating, cooling of electronics, cooling of transformer oil, improving diesel generator efficiency, cooling of heat exchanging devices, improving heat transfer efficiency of chillers, domestic refrigerator-freezers, cooling in machining, in nuclear reactor and defense and space have been reviewed and presented. Authors also critically analyzed some of the applications and identified research gaps for further research. Moreover, challenges and future directions of applications of nanofluids have been reviewed and presented in this paper. Based on results available in the literatures, it has been found nanofluids have a much higher and strongly temperature-dependent thermal conductivity at very low particle concentrations than conventional fluids. This can be considered as one of the key parameters for enhanced performances for many of the applications of nanofluids. Because of its superior thermal performances, latest up to date literatures on this property have been summarized and presented in this paper as well. However, few barriers and challenges that have been identified in this review must be addressed carefully before it can be fully implemented in the industrial applications.

1,558 citations

01 Jan 2016
TL;DR: The numerical heat transfer and fluid flow is universally compatible with any devices to read and is available in the authors' digital library an online access to it is set as public so you can get it instantly.
Abstract: Thank you for reading numerical heat transfer and fluid flow. Maybe you have knowledge that, people have search numerous times for their favorite books like this numerical heat transfer and fluid flow, but end up in infectious downloads. Rather than reading a good book with a cup of coffee in the afternoon, instead they cope with some malicious virus inside their computer. numerical heat transfer and fluid flow is available in our digital library an online access to it is set as public so you can get it instantly. Our books collection spans in multiple countries, allowing you to get the most less latency time to download any of our books like this one. Merely said, the numerical heat transfer and fluid flow is universally compatible with any devices to read.

1,531 citations