Author

# Thomas B. Gatski

Bio: Thomas B. Gatski is an academic researcher from Langley Research Center. The author has contributed to research in topics: Turbulence & Reynolds stress. The author has an hindex of 32, co-authored 110 publications receiving 7967 citations.

##### Papers published on a yearly basis

##### Papers

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TL;DR: In this article, a two-equation model and Reynolds stress transport model are developed for turbulent shear flows and tested for homogeneous shear flow and flow over a backward facing step.

Abstract: Turbulence models are developed by supplementing the renormalization group (RNG) approach of Yakhot and Orszag [J. Sci. Comput. 1, 3 (1986)] with scale expansions for the Reynolds stress and production of dissipation terms. The additional expansion parameter (η≡SK/■) is the ratio of the turbulent to mean strain time scale. While low‐order expansions appear to provide an adequate description for the Reynolds stress, no finite truncation of the expansion for the production of dissipation term in powers of η suffices−terms of all orders must be retained. Based on these ideas, a new two‐equation model and Reynolds stress transport model are developed for turbulent shear flows. The models are tested for homogeneous shear flow and flow over a backward facing step. Comparisons between the model predictions and experimental data are excellent.

2,347 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors examined the modeling of the pressure-strain correlation of turbulent flows from a basic theoretical standpoint with a view toward developing improved second-order closure models and proved that for plane homogeneous turbulent flows the equilibrium structure of this hierarchy of models is encapsulated by a relatively simple model which is only quadratically nonlinear in the anisotropy tensor.

Abstract: The modeling of the pressure-strain correlation of turbulence is examined from a basic theoretical standpoint with a view toward developing improved second-order closure models. Invariance considerations along with elementary dynamical systems theory are used in the analysis of the standard hierarchy of closure models. In these commonly used models, the pressure-strain correlation is assumed to be a linear function of the mean velocity gradients with coefficients that depend algebraically on the anisotropy tensor. It is proven that for plane homogeneous turbulent flows the equilibrium structure of this hierarchy of models is encapsulated by a relatively simple model which is only quadratically nonlinear in the anisotropy tensor. This new quadratic model - the SSG model - is shown to outperform the Launder, Reece, and Rodi model (as well as more recent models that have a considerably more complex nonlinear structure) in a variety of homogeneous turbulent flows. Some deficiencies still remain for the description of rotating turbulent shear flows that are intrinsic to this general hierarchy of models and, hence, cannot be overcome by the mere introduction of more complex nonlinearities. It is thus argued that the recent trend of adding substantially more complex nonlinear terms containing the anisotropy tensor may be of questionable value in the modeling of the pressure-strain correlation. Possible alternative approaches are discussed briefly.

1,556 citations

01 Nov 1992

TL;DR: Explicit algebraic stress models that are valid for three-dimensional turbulent flows in noninertial frames are systematically derived from a hierarchy of second-order closure models.

Abstract: Explicit algebraic stress models that are valid for three-dimensional turbulent flows in noninertial frames are systematically derived from a hierarchy of second-order closure models. This represents a generalization of the model derived by Pope who based his analysis on the Launder, Reece, and Rodi model restricted to two-dimensional turbulent flows in an inertial frame. The relationship between the new models and traditional algebraic stress models -- as well as anistropic eddy visosity models -- is theoretically established. The need for regularization is demonstrated in an effort to explain why traditional algebraic stress models have failed in complex flows. It is also shown that these explicit algebraic stress models can shed new light on what second-order closure models predict for the equilibrium states of homogeneous turbulent flows and can serve as a useful alternative in practical computations.

784 citations

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TL;DR: Explicit algebraic stress models that are valid for three-dimensional turbulent flows in noninertial frames are systematically derived from a hierarchy of second-order closure models as discussed by the authors.

Abstract: Explicit algebraic stress models that are valid for three-dimensional turbulent flows in noninertial frames are systematically derived from a hierarchy of second-order closure models. This represents a generalization of the model derived by Pope who based his analysis on the Launder, Reece, and Rodi model restricted to two-dimensional turbulent flows in an inertial frame. The relationship between the new models and traditional algebraic stress models -- as well as anistropic eddy visosity models -- is theoretically established. The need for regularization is demonstrated in an effort to explain why traditional algebraic stress models have failed in complex flows. It is also shown that these explicit algebraic stress models can shed new light on what second-order closure models predict for the equilibrium states of homogeneous turbulent flows and can serve as a useful alternative in practical computations.

774 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a spatially developing supersonic adiabatic flat plate boundary layer flow (at M∞=2.25 and Reθ≈4000) is analyzed by means of direct numerical simulation.

Abstract: A spatially developing supersonic adiabatic flat plate boundary layer flow (at M∞=2.25 and Reθ≈4000) is analyzed by means of direct numerical simulation. The numerical algorithm is based on a mixed weighted essentially nonoscillatory compact-difference method for the three-dimensional Navier–Stokes equations. The main objectives are to assess the validity of Morkovin’s hypothesis and Reynolds analogies, and to analyze the controlling mechanisms for turbulence production, dissipation, and transport. The results show that the essential dynamics of the investigated turbulent supersonic boundary layer flow closely resembles the incompressible pattern. The Van Driest transformed mean velocity obeys the incompressible law-of-the-wall, and the mean static temperature field exhibits a quadratic dependency upon the mean velocity, as predicted by the Crocco–Busemann relation. The total temperature has been found not to be precisely uniform, and total temperature fluctuations are found to be non-negligible. Consiste...

419 citations

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TL;DR: The implementation of various types of turbulence modeling in a FOAM computational-fluid-dynamics code is discussed, and calculations performed on a standard test case, that of flow around a square prism, are presented.

Abstract: In this article the principles of the field operation and manipulation (FOAM) C++ class library for continuum mechanics are outlined. Our intention is to make it as easy as possible to develop reliable and efficient computational continuum-mechanics codes: this is achieved by making the top-level syntax of the code as close as possible to conventional mathematical notation for tensors and partial differential equations. Object-orientation techniques enable the creation of data types that closely mimic those of continuum mechanics, and the operator overloading possible in C++ allows normal mathematical symbols to be used for the basic operations. As an example, the implementation of various types of turbulence modeling in a FOAM computational-fluid-dynamics code is discussed, and calculations performed on a standard test case, that of flow around a square prism, are presented. To demonstrate the flexibility of the FOAM library, codes for solving structures and magnetohydrodynamics are also presented with appropriate test case results given. © 1998 American Institute of Physics.

3,987 citations

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01 Jan 1996

TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a review of rigor properties of low-dimensional models and their applications in the field of fluid mechanics. But they do not consider the effects of random perturbation on models.

Abstract: Preface Part I. Turbulence: 1. Introduction 2. Coherent structures 3. Proper orthogonal decomposition 4. Galerkin projection Part II. Dynamical Systems: 5. Qualitative theory 6. Symmetry 7. One-dimensional 'turbulence' 8. Randomly perturbed systems Part III. 9. Low-dimensional Models: 10. Behaviour of the models Part IV. Other Applications and Related Work: 11. Some other fluid problems 12. Review: prospects for rigor Bibliography.

2,920 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a two-equation model and Reynolds stress transport model are developed for turbulent shear flows and tested for homogeneous shear flow and flow over a backward facing step.

Abstract: Turbulence models are developed by supplementing the renormalization group (RNG) approach of Yakhot and Orszag [J. Sci. Comput. 1, 3 (1986)] with scale expansions for the Reynolds stress and production of dissipation terms. The additional expansion parameter (η≡SK/■) is the ratio of the turbulent to mean strain time scale. While low‐order expansions appear to provide an adequate description for the Reynolds stress, no finite truncation of the expansion for the production of dissipation term in powers of η suffices−terms of all orders must be retained. Based on these ideas, a new two‐equation model and Reynolds stress transport model are developed for turbulent shear flows. The models are tested for homogeneous shear flow and flow over a backward facing step. Comparisons between the model predictions and experimental data are excellent.

2,347 citations

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Niigata Institute of Technology

^{1}, Tohoku University^{2}, Tokyo Polytechnic University^{3}, Obayashi Corporation^{4}, Shimizu Corporation^{5}, Taisei Corporation^{6}TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present guidelines for using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques for predicting pedestrian wind environment around buildings in the design stage, based on cross-comparison between CFD predictions, wind tunnel test results and field measurements.

Abstract: Significant improvements of computer facilities and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software in recent years have enabled prediction and assessment of the pedestrian wind environment around buildings in the design stage. Therefore, guidelines are required that summarize important points in using the CFD technique for this purpose. This paper describes guidelines proposed by the Working Group of the Architectural Institute of Japan (AIJ). The feature of these guidelines is that they are based on cross-comparison between CFD predictions, wind tunnel test results and field measurements for seven test cases used to investigate the influence of many kinds of computational conditions for various flow fields.

1,619 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors examined the modeling of the pressure-strain correlation of turbulent flows from a basic theoretical standpoint with a view toward developing improved second-order closure models and proved that for plane homogeneous turbulent flows the equilibrium structure of this hierarchy of models is encapsulated by a relatively simple model which is only quadratically nonlinear in the anisotropy tensor.

Abstract: The modeling of the pressure-strain correlation of turbulence is examined from a basic theoretical standpoint with a view toward developing improved second-order closure models. Invariance considerations along with elementary dynamical systems theory are used in the analysis of the standard hierarchy of closure models. In these commonly used models, the pressure-strain correlation is assumed to be a linear function of the mean velocity gradients with coefficients that depend algebraically on the anisotropy tensor. It is proven that for plane homogeneous turbulent flows the equilibrium structure of this hierarchy of models is encapsulated by a relatively simple model which is only quadratically nonlinear in the anisotropy tensor. This new quadratic model - the SSG model - is shown to outperform the Launder, Reece, and Rodi model (as well as more recent models that have a considerably more complex nonlinear structure) in a variety of homogeneous turbulent flows. Some deficiencies still remain for the description of rotating turbulent shear flows that are intrinsic to this general hierarchy of models and, hence, cannot be overcome by the mere introduction of more complex nonlinearities. It is thus argued that the recent trend of adding substantially more complex nonlinear terms containing the anisotropy tensor may be of questionable value in the modeling of the pressure-strain correlation. Possible alternative approaches are discussed briefly.

1,556 citations