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Thomas C. Patterson

Bio: Thomas C. Patterson is an academic researcher from University of California, Riverside. The author has contributed to research in topics: State formation & Social history. The author has an hindex of 24, co-authored 71 publications receiving 2488 citations. Previous affiliations of Thomas C. Patterson include Temple University & University of California, Berkeley.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jun 1991

531 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A continuous quality score is presented that can be computed very quickly and can be considered an approximation of the MASCOT score in case of a correct identification of proteins by tandem mass spectrometry.
Abstract: Protein identification by tandem mass spectrometry is based on the reliable processing of the acquired data. Unfortunately, the generation of a large number of poor quality spectra is commonly observed in LC-MS/MS, and the processing of these mostly noninformative spectra with its associated costs should be avoided. We present a continuous quality score that can be computed very quickly and that can be considered an approximation of the MASCOT score in case of a correct identification. This score can be used to reject low quality spectra prior to database identification, or to draw attention to those spectra that exhibit a (supposedly) high information content, but could not be identified. The proposed quality score can be calibrated automatically on site without the need for a manually generated training set. When this score is turned into a classifier and when features are used that are independent of the instrument, the proposed approach performs equally to previously published classifiers and feature sets and also gives insights into the behavior of the MASCOT score.

203 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors examined the history of two San groups, one largely dependent on its Bantuspeaking neighbours and the other substantially autonomous, and found that contact may take many forms, not all of which lead to dependency, abandonment of foraging, or incorporation into "more powerful" social formations.
Abstract: Recent studies of societies hitherto portrayed as autonomous and self-regulating have sought to re-situate them in the context of wider regional and intemational economies, polities, and histories. In this revisionism there is danger of imputing links where none existed and assuming that evidence for trade implies the surrender of autonomy. Examination of the different historical experiences of two San groups, one largely dependent on its Bantuspeaking neighbours and the other (until recently) substantially autonomous, suggests that contact may take many forms, not all of which lead to dependency, abandonment of foraging, or incorporation into "more powerful" social formations.

169 citations

Book
01 Jun 1996
TL;DR: In this paper, eleven scholars from Africa, India, Latin America, North America, and Europe debate and discuss how to respond to the erasure of local histories by colonialism, neocolonial influences, and the practice of archaeology and history as we know them today in North America and much of the Western world.
Abstract: After working in Third World contexts for more than a century, many archaeologists from the West have yet to hear and understand the voices of their colleagues in non-Western cultural settings In Making Alternative Histories, eleven scholars from Africa, India, Latin America, North America, and Europe debate and discuss how to respond to the erasures of local histories by colonialism, neocolonial influences, and the practice of archaeology and history as we know them today in North America and much of the Western world Making Alternative Histories presents a profound challenge to traditional Western modes of scholarship and will be required reading for Western archaeologists, anthropologists, and historians

158 citations

Book
01 Oct 2001
TL;DR: A Social History of Anthropology in the United States by Thomas C.A. Patterson was published in 2001 as mentioned in this paper, focusing on the ways in which the civil-rights and anti-colonial movements, as well as European social theorists and critics, influenced American anthropology.
Abstract: Thomas C. Patterson, Oxford: Berg, 2001, x + 212 pages.Reviewer: Robert L.A. HancockUniversity of VictoriaSince 2000, a number of significant books dealing with the history of anthropology in North America have been published. Among the most notable are Susan Trencher's Mirrored Images: American Anthropology and American Culture, 1960-1980, a major survey of the development of what she terms "fieldworker ethnographies" in the latter half of the twentieth century, and Regna Darnell's Invisible Genealogies: A History of Americanist Anthropology, a comprehensive examination of the development and refinement of the Boasian theoretical paradigm. With his new book, A Social History of Anthropology in the United States, Thomas Patterson has added yet another perspective to this literature.Patterson's book arose out of a dissatisfaction with available histories of anthropology. In his opinion, the existing literature "did not refer to the social and political contexts in which anthropology was born and nurtured in the United States, and they certainly did not address how anthropologists as active agents fit into and helped to shape these contexts" (ix). He has three objectives: to examine the ways in which the civil-rights and anti-colonial movements, as well as European social theorists and critics, influenced American anthropology; to bring to the fore anthropologists on the left of the political spectrum whose contributions to the discipline had been downplayed by repression in the inter-war and Cold War eras; and to highlight the dialectical nature of anthropological knowledge production, that is, to show that the discipline "is shaped by what the world is and who the anthropologists and the diverse peoples they study are" (x). He explicitly characterises his book as a corrective to previous internalist approaches which did not examine the history of American anthropology in the context of American society.Treating the topic chronologically, Patterson divides his book into five chapters. The first, "Anthropology in the New Republic, 1776-1879," examines the preprofessional period of American anthropology, from the founding of the Republic to the work of Lewis Henry Morgan. He draws connections between debates in Britain and the United States, focussing on anti-slavery movements. Relying largely on secondary sources, Patterson emphasises the role of territorial expansion in the development of anthropological thought in the United States, and in the parallel rise of scientific racism.In his second chapter, "Anthropology in the Liberal Age, 1879-1929," Patterson examines the founding of the Bureau of Ethnology (later the Bureau of American Ethnology) and the professionalisation of the discipline. The expansion of the discipline, reflected in the growth of academic departments, the re-organisation of American Anthropologist, and the founding of the American Anthropological Association, occurred during a period of widespread racial intolerance of American Indians, Jews, and African-Americans. Patterson discusses Franz Boas in this context, focussing on his antiracist work, his arguments against evolutionism, and his work with African-American intellectuals. Only brief mention is made of Boas's political work in a public setting--an aside on Boas's defence of the Kwakwaka'wakw potlatch neglects to mention that it was the Canadian government he petitioned. Interestingly, in his discussion of Boas's censure by the AAA in 1919, Patterson does not mention the anti-Semitism of the Washington group which opposed Boas. Instead, he discusses the anti-Semitism of marginal characters, such as Madison Grant.Patterson's third chapter, "Anthropology and the Search for Social Order, 1929-1945," covers an era of increasing politicisation of American anthropology. Here he focuses on prominent anthropologists, including Margaret Mead and Ruth Benedict, who undertook major government research projects; ironically, many of the anthropologists chosen for these projects were students of Boas, the man who had been censured for his "disloyalty" during the First World War. …

121 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Machine learning addresses many of the same research questions as the fields of statistics, data mining, and psychology, but with differences of emphasis.
Abstract: Machine Learning is the study of methods for programming computers to learn. Computers are applied to a wide range of tasks, and for most of these it is relatively easy for programmers to design and implement the necessary software. However, there are many tasks for which this is difficult or impossible. These can be divided into four general categories. First, there are problems for which there exist no human experts. For example, in modern automated manufacturing facilities, there is a need to predict machine failures before they occur by analyzing sensor readings. Because the machines are new, there are no human experts who can be interviewed by a programmer to provide the knowledge necessary to build a computer system. A machine learning system can study recorded data and subsequent machine failures and learn prediction rules. Second, there are problems where human experts exist, but where they are unable to explain their expertise. This is the case in many perceptual tasks, such as speech recognition, hand-writing recognition, and natural language understanding. Virtually all humans exhibit expert-level abilities on these tasks, but none of them can describe the detailed steps that they follow as they perform them. Fortunately, humans can provide machines with examples of the inputs and correct outputs for these tasks, so machine learning algorithms can learn to map the inputs to the outputs. Third, there are problems where phenomena are changing rapidly. In finance, for example, people would like to predict the future behavior of the stock market, of consumer purchases, or of exchange rates. These behaviors change frequently, so that even if a programmer could construct a good predictive computer program, it would need to be rewritten frequently. A learning program can relieve the programmer of this burden by constantly modifying and tuning a set of learned prediction rules. Fourth, there are applications that need to be customized for each computer user separately. Consider, for example, a program to filter unwanted electronic mail messages. Different users will need different filters. It is unreasonable to expect each user to program his or her own rules, and it is infeasible to provide every user with a software engineer to keep the rules up-to-date. A machine learning system can learn which mail messages the user rejects and maintain the filtering rules automatically. Machine learning addresses many of the same research questions as the fields of statistics, data mining, and psychology, but with differences of emphasis. Statistics focuses on understanding the phenomena that have generated the data, often with the goal of testing different hypotheses about those phenomena. Data mining seeks to find patterns in the data that are understandable by people. Psychological studies of human learning aspire to understand the mechanisms underlying the various learning behaviors exhibited by people (concept learning, skill acquisition, strategy change, etc.).

13,246 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is impossible that the rulers now on earth should make any benefit, or derive any the least shadow of authority from that, which is held to be the fountain of all power, Adam's private dominion and paternal jurisdiction.
Abstract: All these premises having, as I think, been clearly made out, it is impossible that the rulers now on earth should make any benefit, or derive any the least shadow of authority from that, which is held to be the fountain of all power, Adam's private dominion and paternal jurisdiction; so that he that will not give just occasion to think that all government in the world is the product only of force and violence, and that men live together by no other rules but that of beasts, where the strongest carries it, and so lay a foundation for perpetual disorder and mischief, tumult, sedition and rebellion, (things that the followers of that hypothesis so loudly cry out against) must of necessity find out another rise of government, another original of political power, and another way of designing and knowing the persons that have it, than what Sir Robert Filmer hath taught us.

3,076 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In the context of the apparent closure of neoliberalism, the authors can think of no more profoundly humanist statement than "no mode of production and therefore no dominant social order and thus no dom...
Abstract: In the context of the apparent closure of neoliberalism, I can think of no more profoundly humanist statement than “no mode of production and therefore no dominant social order and therefore no dom...

1,658 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Over 40 years ago, ornithologists studying the movement of birds in relation to their birth and breeding sites were preoccupied with estimating the extent of mixing of individuals within a species's range, with major disagreements about how far young birds dispersed.
Abstract: "The question of the return of birds to their homes is one of perennial interest. How faithfully do adult birds-males and females return to their territories? How far from their birth place do young birds settle? Over how much ground does one family scatter?" (91). Over 40 years ago, ornithologists studying the movement of birds in relation to their birth and breeding sites were preoccupied with estimating the extent of mixing of individuals within a species's range. There were major disagreements about how far young birds dispersed. Some authors felt that young birds did not tend to return to their birthplaces (101) but selected a nesting site anywhere within the species's natural range (27, 81). Others concluded that birds attempting to breed for the first time did, on the whole, return to their birthplaces though the extent of this fidelty was less than that of adults to their previous breeding sites (36, 69, 70, 91). It was generally agreed that adult birds did return to a previous breeding place. Gradually the position of the supporters of the random dispersal theory was undermined as more data accumulated and methodological problems of measuring dispersal came to be better appreciated. A number of longterm studies were reported between the late 1930s and the early 1950s (4,

1,510 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article showed that European expansion not only transformed the historical trajectory of non-European societies, but also reconstituted the historical accounts of these societies before European intervention, and asserted that anthropology must pay more attention to history.
Abstract: The intention of this work is to show that European expansion not only transformed the historical trajectory of non-European societies but also reconstituted the historical accounts of these societies before European intervention. It asserts that anthropology must pay more attention to history.

1,309 citations