Other affiliations: University of Basel, University of Lausanne, Anhui Normal University ...read more
Bio: Thomas Nauser is an academic researcher from ETH Zurich. The author has contributed to research in topics: Radical & Radiolysis. The author has an hindex of 30, co-authored 87 publications receiving 3778 citations. Previous affiliations of Thomas Nauser include University of Basel & University of Lausanne.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: Improvements to the biomimetic synthesis of peroxynitrite with solid potassium superoxide and gaseous nitrogen monoxide result in higher peroxlynitrite to nitrite yields than in most other syntheses.
Abstract: Flash photolysis of alkaline peroxynitrite solutions results in the formation of nitrogen monoxide and superoxide. From the rate of recombination it is concluded that the rate constant of the react...
TL;DR: In this article, a solid-state gamma-radiation detector made from solution-grown perovskites has been demonstrated for multiple practical applications, including defence, medical and research applications.
Abstract: Cheap and sensitive gamma-ray detectors are desired for defence, medical and research applications. Solid-state gamma-radiation detectors made from solution-grown perovskites have now been demonstrated for multiple practical applications.
TL;DR: This result indicates that, as confirmed from protein analysis after reacting the proteins with NO* for 10 times, when peroxynitrite is coordinated to the heme of myoglobin or hemoglobin it rapidly isomerizes to nitrate without nitrating the globins in physiologically significant amounts.
Abstract: The second-order rate constants for the reactions between nitrogen monoxide and oxymyoglobin or oxyhemoglobin, determined by stopped-flow spectroscopy, increase with increasing pH. At pH 7.0 the rates are (43.6 ± 0.5) × 106 M-1 s-1 for oxymyoglobin and (89 ± 3) × 106 M-1 s-1 for oxyhemoglobin (per heme), whereas at pH 9.5 they are (97 ± 3) × 106 M-1 s-1 and (144 ± 3) × 106 M-1 s-1, respectively. The rate constants for the reaction between oxyhemoglobin and NO• depend neither on the association grade of the protein (dimer/tetramer) nor on the concentration of the phosphate buffer (100−1 mM). The nitrogen monoxide-mediated oxidations of oxymyoglobin and oxyhemoglobin proceed via intermediate peroxynitrito complexes which were characterized by rapid scan UV/vis spectroscopy. The two complexes MbFeIIIOONO and HbFeIIIOONO display very similar spectra with absorption maxima around 500 and 635 nm. These species can be observed at alkaline pH but rapidly decay to the met-form of the proteins under neutral or acid...
TL;DR: The data presented in this study explain some of the physiological effects ascribed to H2S, but, more broadly, introduce a new signaling molecule, HSNO, and suggest that it may play a key role in cellular redox regulation.
Abstract: Dihydrogen sulfide recently emerged as a biological signaling molecule with important physiological roles and significant pharmacological potential. Chemically plausible explanations for its mechanisms of action have remained elusive, however. Here, we report that H2S reacts with S-nitrosothiols to form thionitrous acid (HSNO), the smallest S-nitrosothiol. These results demonstrate that, at the cellular level, HSNO can be metabolized to afford NO+, NO, and NO– species, all of which have distinct physiological consequences of their own. We further show that HSNO can freely diffuse through membranes, facilitating transnitrosation of proteins such as hemoglobin. The data presented in this study explain some of the physiological effects ascribed to H2S, but, more broadly, introduce a new signaling molecule, HSNO, and suggest that it may play a key role in cellular redox regulation.
TL;DR: It is reported here that human peroxiredoxin 5 is also a peroxynitrite reductase, and with the use of pulse radiolysis, it is shown that the nucleophilic attack on the O–O bond of peroxlynitrite is performed by the N‐terminal peroxidatic Cys47.
Abstract: Peroxiredoxins are an ubiquitous family of peroxidases widely distributed among prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Peroxiredoxin 5, which is the last discovered mammalian member, was previously shown to reduce peroxides with the use of reducing equivalents derived from thioredoxin. We report here that human peroxiredoxin 5 is also a peroxynitrite reductase. Analysis of peroxiredoxin 5 mutants, in which each of the cysteine residues was mutated, suggests that the nucleophilic attack on the O-O bond of peroxynitrite is performed by the N-terminal peroxidatic Cys(47). Moreover, with the use of pulse radiolysis, we show that human peroxiredoxin 5 reduces peroxynitrite with an unequalled high rate constant of (7+/-3)x10(7) M(-1)s(-1).
TL;DR: Current evidence indicates that most of the cytotoxicity attributed to NO is rather due to peroxynitrite, produced from the diffusion-controlled reaction between NO and another free radical, the superoxide anion, which is presented in detail in this review.
Abstract: The discovery that mammalian cells have the ability to synthesize the free radical nitric oxide (NO) has stimulated an extraordinary impetus for scientific research in all the fields of biology and medicine. Since its early description as an endothelial-derived relaxing factor, NO has emerged as a fundamental signaling device regulating virtually every critical cellular function, as well as a potent mediator of cellular damage in a wide range of conditions. Recent evidence indicates that most of the cytotoxicity attributed to NO is rather due to peroxynitrite, produced from the diffusion-controlled reaction between NO and another free radical, the superoxide anion. Peroxynitrite interacts with lipids, DNA, and proteins via direct oxidative reactions or via indirect, radical-mediated mechanisms. These reactions trigger cellular responses ranging from subtle modulations of cell signaling to overwhelming oxidative injury, committing cells to necrosis or apoptosis. In vivo, peroxynitrite generation represents a crucial pathogenic mechanism in conditions such as stroke, myocardial infarction, chronic heart failure, diabetes, circulatory shock, chronic inflammatory diseases, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders. Hence, novel pharmacological strategies aimed at removing peroxynitrite might represent powerful therapeutic tools in the future. Evidence supporting these novel roles of NO and peroxynitrite is presented in detail in this review.
TL;DR: In this review, the cellular oxidant and antioxidant systems are summarized and the cellular effects and mechanisms of the oxidative stress are discussed.
Abstract: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced by living organisms as a result of normal cellular metabolism and environmental factors, such as air pollutants or cigarette smoke. ROS are highly reactive molecules and can damage cell structures such as carbohydrates, nucleic acids, lipids, and proteins and alter their functions. The shift in the balance between oxidants and antioxidants in favor of oxidants is termed "oxidative stress." Regulation of reducing and oxidizing (redox) state is critical for cell viability, activation, proliferation, and organ function. Aerobic organisms have integrated antioxidant systems, which include enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants that are usually effective in blocking harmful effects of ROS. However, in pathological conditions, the antioxidant systems can be overwhelmed. Oxidative stress contributes to many pathological conditions and diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, atherosclerosis, hypertension, ischemia/perfusion, diabetes, acute respiratory distress syndrome, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and asthma. In this review, we summarize the cellular oxidant and antioxidant systems and discuss the cellular effects and mechanisms of the oxidative stress.
TL;DR: An "oxidative response to inflammation" model is proposed as a means of reconciling the response-to-injury and oxidative modification hypotheses of atherosclerosis.
Abstract: This review focuses on the role of oxidative processes in atherosclerosis and its resultant cardiovascular events. There is now a consensus that atherosclerosis represents a state of heightened oxidative stress characterized by lipid and protein oxidation in the vascular wall. The oxidative modification hypothesis of atherosclerosis predicts that low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation is an early event in atherosclerosis and that oxidized LDL contributes to atherogenesis. In support of this hypothesis, oxidized LDL can support foam cell formation in vitro, the lipid in human lesions is substantially oxidized, there is evidence for the presence of oxidized LDL in vivo, oxidized LDL has a number of potentially proatherogenic activities, and several structurally unrelated antioxidants inhibit atherosclerosis in animals. An emerging consensus also underscores the importance in vascular disease of oxidative events in addition to LDL oxidation. These include the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species by vascular cells, as well as oxidative modifications contributing to important clinical manifestations of coronary artery disease such as endothelial dysfunction and plaque disruption. Despite these abundant data however, fundamental problems remain with implicating oxidative modification as a (requisite) pathophysiologically important cause for atherosclerosis. These include the poor performance of antioxidant strategies in limiting either atherosclerosis or cardiovascular events from atherosclerosis, and observations in animals that suggest dissociation between atherosclerosis and lipoprotein oxidation. Indeed, it remains to be established that oxidative events are a cause rather than an injurious response to atherogenesis. In this context, inflammation needs to be considered as a primary process of atherosclerosis, and oxidative stress as a secondary event. To address this issue, we have proposed an "oxidative response to inflammation" model as a means of reconciling the response-to-injury and oxidative modification hypotheses of atherosclerosis.
TL;DR: This review examines how target selectivity and antioxidant effectiveness vary for different oxidants and highlights areas where greater understanding is required on the fate of oxidants generated by cellular NADPH oxidases and on the identification of oxidant sensors in cell signaling.
Abstract: There is a vast literature on the generation and effects of reactive oxygen species in biological systems, both in relation to damage they cause and their involvement in cell regulatory and signaling pathways. The biological chemistry of different oxidants is becoming well understood, but it is often unclear how this translates into cellular mechanisms where redox changes have been demonstrated. This review addresses this gap. It examines how target selectivity and antioxidant effectiveness vary for different oxidants. Kinetic considerations of reactivity are used to assess likely targets in cells and how reactions might be influenced by restricted diffusion and compartmentalization. It also highlights areas where greater understanding is required on the fate of oxidants generated by cellular NADPH oxidases and on the identification of oxidant sensors in cell signaling.
TL;DR: The levels of oxidative DNA damage reported in many human tissues or in animal models of carcinogenesis exceed the levels of lesions induced by exposure to exogenous carcinogenic compounds, and it seems likely that oxidativeDNA damage is important in the etiology of many human cancers.
Abstract: A major development of carcinogenesis research in the past 20 years has been the discovery of significant levels of DNA damage arising from endogenous cellular sources. Dramatic improvements in analytical chemistry have provided sensitive and specific methodology for identification and quantitation of DNA adducts. Application of these techniques to the analysis of nuclear DNA from human tissues has debunked the notion that the human genome is pristine in the absence of exposure to environmental carcinogens. Much endogenous DNA damage arises from intermediates of oxygen reduction that either attack the bases or the deoxyribosyl backbone of DNA. Alternatively, oxygen radicals can attack other cellular components such as lipids to generate reactive intermediates that couple to DNA bases. Endogenous DNA lesions are genotoxic and induce mutations that are commonly observed in mutated oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Their mutagenicity is mitigated by repair via base excision and nucleotide excision pathways. The levels of oxidative DNA damage reported in many human tissues or in animal models of carcinogenesis exceed the levels of lesions induced by exposure to exogenous carcinogenic compounds. Thus, it seems likely that oxidative DNA damage is important in the etiology of many human cancers. This review highlights some of the major accomplishments in the study of oxidative DNA damage and its role in carcinogenesis. It also identifies controversies that need to be resolved. Unraveling the contributions to tumorigenesis of DNA damage from endogenous and exogenous sources represents a major challenge for the future.