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Thomas Richardson

Bio: Thomas Richardson is an academic researcher from Qualcomm. The author has contributed to research in topics: Low-density parity-check code & Wireless. The author has an hindex of 57, co-authored 372 publications receiving 27197 citations. Previous affiliations of Thomas Richardson include Technion – Israel Institute of Technology & Alcatel-Lucent.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work designs low-density parity-check codes that perform at rates extremely close to the Shannon capacity and proves a stability condition which implies an upper bound on the fraction of errors that a belief-propagation decoder can correct when applied to a code induced from a bipartite graph with a given degree distribution.
Abstract: We design low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes that perform at rates extremely close to the Shannon capacity. The codes are built from highly irregular bipartite graphs with carefully chosen degree patterns on both sides. Our theoretical analysis of the codes is based on the work of Richardson and Urbanke (see ibid., vol.47, no.2, p.599-618, 2000). Assuming that the underlying communication channel is symmetric, we prove that the probability densities at the message nodes of the graph possess a certain symmetry. Using this symmetry property we then show that, under the assumption of no cycles, the message densities always converge as the number of iterations tends to infinity. Furthermore, we prove a stability condition which implies an upper bound on the fraction of errors that a belief-propagation decoder can correct when applied to a code induced from a bipartite graph with a given degree distribution. Our codes are found by optimizing the degree structure of the underlying graphs. We develop several strategies to perform this optimization. We also present some simulation results for the codes found which show that the performance of the codes is very close to the asymptotic theoretical bounds.

3,520 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results are based on the observation that the concentration of the performance of the decoder around its average performance, as observed by Luby et al. in the case of a binary-symmetric channel and a binary message-passing algorithm, is a general phenomenon.
Abstract: We present a general method for determining the capacity of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes under message-passing decoding when used over any binary-input memoryless channel with discrete or continuous output alphabets. Transmitting at rates below this capacity, a randomly chosen element of the given ensemble will achieve an arbitrarily small target probability of error with a probability that approaches one exponentially fast in the length of the code. (By concatenating with an appropriate outer code one can achieve a probability of error that approaches zero exponentially fast in the length of the code with arbitrarily small loss in rate.) Conversely, transmitting at rates above this capacity the probability of error is bounded away from zero by a strictly positive constant which is independent of the length of the code and of the number of iterations performed. Our results are based on the observation that the concentration of the performance of the decoder around its average performance, as observed by Luby et al. in the case of a binary-symmetric channel and a binary message-passing algorithm, is a general phenomenon. For the particularly important case of belief-propagation decoders, we provide an effective algorithm to determine the corresponding capacity to any desired degree of accuracy. The ideas presented in this paper are broadly applicable and extensions of the general method to low-density parity-check codes over larger alphabets, turbo codes, and other concatenated coding schemes are outlined.

3,393 citations

MonographDOI
17 Mar 2008
TL;DR: This summary of the state-of-the-art in iterative coding makes this decision more straightforward, with emphasis on the underlying theory, techniques to analyse and design practical iterative codes systems.
Abstract: Having trouble deciding which coding scheme to employ, how to design a new scheme, or how to improve an existing system? This summary of the state-of-the-art in iterative coding makes this decision more straightforward. With emphasis on the underlying theory, techniques to analyse and design practical iterative coding systems are presented. Using Gallager's original ensemble of LDPC codes, the basic concepts are extended for several general codes, including the practically important class of turbo codes. The simplicity of the binary erasure channel is exploited to develop analytical techniques and intuition, which are then applied to general channel models. A chapter on factor graphs helps to unify the important topics of information theory, coding and communication theory. Covering the most recent advances, this text is ideal for graduate students in electrical engineering and computer science, and practitioners. Additional resources, including instructor's solutions and figures, available online: www.cambridge.org/9780521852296.

2,100 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Improved algorithms are developed to construct good low-density parity-check codes that approach the Shannon limit very closely, especially for rate 1/2.
Abstract: We develop improved algorithms to construct good low-density parity-check codes that approach the Shannon limit very closely. For rate 1/2, the best code found has a threshold within 0.0045 dB of the Shannon limit of the binary-input additive white Gaussian noise channel. Simulation results with a somewhat simpler code show that we can achieve within 0.04 dB of the Shannon limit at a bit error rate of 10/sup -6/ using a block length of 10/sup 7/.

1,642 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: By using the Gaussian approximation for message densities under density evolution, the sum-product decoding algorithm can be visualize and the optimization of degree distributions can be understood and done graphically using the visualization.
Abstract: Density evolution is an algorithm for computing the capacity of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes under message-passing decoding. For memoryless binary-input continuous-output additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channels and sum-product decoders, we use a Gaussian approximation for message densities under density evolution to simplify the analysis of the decoding algorithm. We convert the infinite-dimensional problem of iteratively calculating message densities, which is needed to find the exact threshold, to a one-dimensional problem of updating the means of the Gaussian densities. This simplification not only allows us to calculate the threshold quickly and to understand the behavior of the decoder better, but also makes it easier to design good irregular LDPC codes for AWGN channels. For various regular LDPC codes we have examined, thresholds can be estimated within 0.1 dB of the exact value. For rates between 0.5 and 0.9, codes designed using the Gaussian approximation perform within 0.02 dB of the best performing codes found so far by using density evolution when the maximum variable degree is 10. We show that by using the Gaussian approximation, we can visualize the sum-product decoding algorithm. We also show that the optimization of degree distributions can be understood and done graphically using the visualization.

1,204 citations


Cited by
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Book
01 Jan 2005

9,038 citations

Book
06 Oct 2003
TL;DR: A fun and exciting textbook on the mathematics underpinning the most dynamic areas of modern science and engineering.
Abstract: Fun and exciting textbook on the mathematics underpinning the most dynamic areas of modern science and engineering.

8,091 citations

Proceedings Article
01 Jan 2005
TL;DR: This book aims to provide a chronology of key events and individuals involved in the development of microelectronics technology over the past 50 years and some of the individuals involved have been identified and named.
Abstract: Alhussein Abouzeid Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Raviraj Adve University of Toronto Dharma Agrawal University of Cincinnati Walid Ahmed Tyco M/A-COM Sonia Aissa University of Quebec, INRSEMT Huseyin Arslan University of South Florida Nallanathan Arumugam National University of Singapore Saewoong Bahk Seoul National University Claus Bauer Dolby Laboratories Brahim Bensaou Hong Kong University of Science and Technology Rick Blum Lehigh University Michael Buehrer Virginia Tech Antonio Capone Politecnico di Milano Javier Gómez Castellanos National University of Mexico Claude Castelluccia INRIA Henry Chan The Hong Kong Polytechnic University Ajit Chaturvedi Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Jyh-Cheng Chen National Tsing Hua University Yong Huat Chew Institute for Infocomm Research Tricia Chigan Michigan Tech Dong-Ho Cho Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Tech. Jinho Choi University of New South Wales Carlos Cordeiro Philips Research USA Laurie Cuthbert Queen Mary University of London Arek Dadej University of South Australia Sajal Das University of Texas at Arlington Franco Davoli DIST University of Genoa Xiaodai Dong, University of Alberta Hassan El-sallabi Helsinki University of Technology Ozgur Ercetin Sabanci University Elza Erkip Polytechnic University Romano Fantacci University of Florence Frank Fitzek Aalborg University Mario Freire University of Beira Interior Vincent Gaudet University of Alberta Jairo Gutierrez University of Auckland Michael Hadjitheodosiou University of Maryland Zhu Han University of Maryland College Park Christian Hartmann Technische Universitat Munchen Hossam Hassanein Queen's University Soong Boon Hee Nanyang Technological University Paul Ho Simon Fraser University Antonio Iera University "Mediterranea" of Reggio Calabria Markku Juntti University of Oulu Stefan Kaiser DoCoMo Euro-Labs Nei Kato Tohoku University Dongkyun Kim Kyungpook National University Ryuji Kohno Yokohama National University Bhaskar Krishnamachari University of Southern California Giridhar Krishnamurthy Indian Institute of Technology Madras Lutz Lampe University of British Columbia Bjorn Landfeldt The University of Sydney Peter Langendoerfer IHP Microelectronics Technologies Eddie Law Ryerson University in Toronto

7,826 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper discusses all of these topics, identifying key challenges for future research and preliminary 5G standardization activities, while providing a comprehensive overview of the current literature, and in particular of the papers appearing in this special issue.
Abstract: What will 5G be? What it will not be is an incremental advance on 4G. The previous four generations of cellular technology have each been a major paradigm shift that has broken backward compatibility. Indeed, 5G will need to be a paradigm shift that includes very high carrier frequencies with massive bandwidths, extreme base station and device densities, and unprecedented numbers of antennas. However, unlike the previous four generations, it will also be highly integrative: tying any new 5G air interface and spectrum together with LTE and WiFi to provide universal high-rate coverage and a seamless user experience. To support this, the core network will also have to reach unprecedented levels of flexibility and intelligence, spectrum regulation will need to be rethought and improved, and energy and cost efficiencies will become even more critical considerations. This paper discusses all of these topics, identifying key challenges for future research and preliminary 5G standardization activities, while providing a comprehensive overview of the current literature, and in particular of the papers appearing in this special issue.

7,139 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
22 Jan 2006
TL;DR: Some of the major results in random graphs and some of the more challenging open problems are reviewed, including those related to the WWW.
Abstract: We will review some of the major results in random graphs and some of the more challenging open problems. We will cover algorithmic and structural questions. We will touch on newer models, including those related to the WWW.

7,116 citations