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Timothy J. Booth

Bio: Timothy J. Booth is an academic researcher from Technical University of Denmark. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Graphene & Raman spectroscopy. The author has an hindex of 29, co-authored 75 publication(s) receiving 28228 citation(s). Previous affiliations of Timothy J. Booth include University of Minho & Daresbury Laboratory.
Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: By using micromechanical cleavage, a variety of 2D crystals including single layers of boron nitride, graphite, several dichalcogenides, and complex oxides are prepared and studied.
Abstract: We report free-standing atomic crystals that are strictly 2D and can be viewed as individual atomic planes pulled out of bulk crystals or as unrolled single-wall nanotubes. By using micromechanical cleavage, we have prepared and studied a variety of 2D crystals including single layers of boron nitride, graphite, several dichalcogenides, and complex oxides. These atomically thin sheets (essentially gigantic 2D molecules unprotected from the immediate environment) are stable under ambient conditions, exhibit high crystal quality, and are continuous on a macroscopic scale.

9,540 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
06 Jun 2008-Science
TL;DR: It is shown that the opacity of suspended graphene is defined solely by the fine structure constant, a = e2/hc � 1/137 (where c is the speed of light), the parameter that describes coupling between light and relativistic electrons and that is traditionally associated with quantum electrodynamics rather than materials science.
Abstract: There are few phenomena in condensed matter physics that are defined only by the fundamental constants and do not depend on material parameters. Examples are the resistivity quantum, h/e2 (h is Planck's constant and e the electron charge), that appears in a variety of transport experiments and the magnetic flux quantum, h/e, playing an important role in the physics of superconductivity. By and large, sophisticated facilities and special measurement conditions are required to observe any of these phenomena. We show that the opacity of suspended graphene is defined solely by the fine structure constant, a = e2/hc feminine 1/137 (where c is the speed of light), the parameter that describes coupling between light and relativistic electrons and that is traditionally associated with quantum electrodynamics rather than materials science. Despite being only one atom thick, graphene is found to absorb a significant (pa = 2.3%) fraction of incident white light, a consequence of graphene's unique electronic structure.

7,102 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Mar 2007-Nature
TL;DR: These studies by transmission electron microscopy reveal that individual graphene sheets freely suspended on a microfabricated scaffold in vacuum or air are not perfectly flat: they exhibit intrinsic microscopic roughening such that the surface normal varies by several degrees and out-of-plane deformations reach 1 nm.
Abstract: Graphene — a recently isolated one-atom-thick layered form of graphite — is a hot topic in the materials science and condensed matter physics communities, where it is proving to be a popular model system for investigation. An experiment involving individual graphene sheets suspended over a microscale scaffold has allowed structure determination using transmission electron microscopy and diffraction, perhaps paving the way towards an answer to the question of why graphene can exist at all. The 'two-dimensional' sheets, it seems, are not flat, but wavy. The undulations are less pronounced in a two-layer system, and disappear in multilayer samples. Learning more about this 'waviness' may reveal what makes these extremely thin carbon membranes so stable. Investigations of individual graphene sheets freely suspended on a microfabricated scaffold in vacuum or in air reveal that the membranes are not perfectly flat, but exhibit an intrinsic waviness, such that the surface normal varies by several degrees, and out-of-plane deformations reach 1 nm. The recent discovery of graphene has sparked much interest, thus far focused on the peculiar electronic structure of this material, in which charge carriers mimic massless relativistic particles1,2,3. However, the physical structure of graphene—a single layer of carbon atoms densely packed in a honeycomb crystal lattice—is also puzzling. On the one hand, graphene appears to be a strictly two-dimensional material, exhibiting such a high crystal quality that electrons can travel submicrometre distances without scattering. On the other hand, perfect two-dimensional crystals cannot exist in the free state, according to both theory and experiment4,5,6,7,8,9. This incompatibility can be avoided by arguing that all the graphene structures studied so far were an integral part of larger three-dimensional structures, either supported by a bulk substrate or embedded in a three-dimensional matrix1,2,3,9,10,11,12. Here we report on individual graphene sheets freely suspended on a microfabricated scaffold in vacuum or air. These membranes are only one atom thick, yet they still display long-range crystalline order. However, our studies by transmission electron microscopy also reveal that these suspended graphene sheets are not perfectly flat: they exhibit intrinsic microscopic roughening such that the surface normal varies by several degrees and out-of-plane deformations reach 1 nm. The atomically thin single-crystal membranes offer ample scope for fundamental research and new technologies, whereas the observed corrugations in the third dimension may provide subtle reasons for the stability of two-dimensional crystals13,14,15.

4,295 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Microfabrication of graphene devices used in many experimental studies currently relies on the fact that graphene crystallites can be visualized using optical microscopy if prepared on top of Si wafers with a certain thickness of SiO2. The authors study graphene’s visibility and show that it depends strongly on both thickness of SiO2 and light wavelength. They have found that by using monochromatic illumination, graphene can be isolated for any SiO2 thickness, albeit 300nm (the current standard) and, especially, ≈100nm are most suitable for its visual detection. By using a Fresnel-law-based model, they quantitatively describe the experimental data.

1,864 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Peter Blake1, P. D. Brimicombe1, Rahul R. Nair, Timothy J. Booth1  +8 moreInstitutions (1)
TL;DR: This letter demonstrates liquid crystal devices with electrodes made of graphene that show excellent performance with a high contrast ratio and discusses the advantages of graphene compared to conventionally used metal oxides in terms of low resistivity, high transparency and chemical stability.
Abstract: Graphene is only one atom thick, optically transparent, chemically inert, and an excellent conductor. These properties seem to make this material an excellent candidate for applications in various photonic devices that require conducting but transparent thin films. In this letter, we demonstrate liquid crystal devices with electrodes made of graphene that show excellent performance with a high contrast ratio. We also discuss the advantages of graphene compared to conventionally used metal oxides in terms of low resistivity, high transparency and chemical stability.

1,429 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
Andre K. Geim1, Kostya S. Novoselov1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: Owing to its unusual electronic spectrum, graphene has led to the emergence of a new paradigm of 'relativistic' condensed-matter physics, where quantum relativistic phenomena can now be mimicked and tested in table-top experiments.
Abstract: Graphene is a rapidly rising star on the horizon of materials science and condensed-matter physics. This strictly two-dimensional material exhibits exceptionally high crystal and electronic quality, and, despite its short history, has already revealed a cornucopia of new physics and potential applications, which are briefly discussed here. Whereas one can be certain of the realness of applications only when commercial products appear, graphene no longer requires any further proof of its importance in terms of fundamental physics. Owing to its unusual electronic spectrum, graphene has led to the emergence of a new paradigm of 'relativistic' condensed-matter physics, where quantum relativistic phenomena, some of which are unobservable in high-energy physics, can now be mimicked and tested in table-top experiments. More generally, graphene represents a conceptually new class of materials that are only one atom thick, and, on this basis, offers new inroads into low-dimensional physics that has never ceased to surprise and continues to provide a fertile ground for applications.

32,822 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: This article reviews the basic theoretical aspects of graphene, a one-atom-thick allotrope of carbon, with unusual two-dimensional Dirac-like electronic excitations. The Dirac electrons can be controlled by application of external electric and magnetic fields, or by altering sample geometry and/or topology. The Dirac electrons behave in unusual ways in tunneling, confinement, and the integer quantum Hall effect. The electronic properties of graphene stacks are discussed and vary with stacking order and number of layers. Edge (surface) states in graphene depend on the edge termination (zigzag or armchair) and affect the physical properties of nanoribbons. Different types of disorder modify the Dirac equation leading to unusual spectroscopic and transport properties. The effects of electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions in single layer and multilayer graphene are also presented.

18,972 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Kostya S. Novoselov1, A. K. Geim1, Sergey V. Morozov, Da Jiang1  +4 moreInstitutions (2)
10 Nov 2005-Nature
TL;DR: This study reports an experimental study of a condensed-matter system (graphene, a single atomic layer of carbon) in which electron transport is essentially governed by Dirac's (relativistic) equation and reveals a variety of unusual phenomena that are characteristic of two-dimensional Dirac fermions.
Abstract: Quantum electrodynamics (resulting from the merger of quantum mechanics and relativity theory) has provided a clear understanding of phenomena ranging from particle physics to cosmology and from astrophysics to quantum chemistry. The ideas underlying quantum electrodynamics also influence the theory of condensed matter, but quantum relativistic effects are usually minute in the known experimental systems that can be described accurately by the non-relativistic Schrodinger equation. Here we report an experimental study of a condensed-matter system (graphene, a single atomic layer of carbon) in which electron transport is essentially governed by Dirac's (relativistic) equation. The charge carriers in graphene mimic relativistic particles with zero rest mass and have an effective 'speed of light' c* approximately 10(6) m s(-1). Our study reveals a variety of unusual phenomena that are characteristic of two-dimensional Dirac fermions. In particular we have observed the following: first, graphene's conductivity never falls below a minimum value corresponding to the quantum unit of conductance, even when concentrations of charge carriers tend to zero; second, the integer quantum Hall effect in graphene is anomalous in that it occurs at half-integer filling factors; and third, the cyclotron mass m(c) of massless carriers in graphene is described by E = m(c)c*2. This two-dimensional system is not only interesting in itself but also allows access to the subtle and rich physics of quantum electrodynamics in a bench-top experiment.

17,308 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Changgu Lee1, Xiaoding Wei1, Jeffrey W. Kysar1, James Hone2  +1 moreInstitutions (2)
18 Jul 2008-Science
TL;DR: Graphene is established as the strongest material ever measured, and atomically perfect nanoscale materials can be mechanically tested to deformations well beyond the linear regime.
Abstract: We measured the elastic properties and intrinsic breaking strength of free-standing monolayer graphene membranes by nanoindentation in an atomic force microscope. The force-displacement behavior is interpreted within a framework of nonlinear elastic stress-strain response, and yields second- and third-order elastic stiffnesses of 340 newtons per meter (N m(-1)) and -690 Nm(-1), respectively. The breaking strength is 42 N m(-1) and represents the intrinsic strength of a defect-free sheet. These quantities correspond to a Young's modulus of E = 1.0 terapascals, third-order elastic stiffness of D = -2.0 terapascals, and intrinsic strength of sigma(int) = 130 gigapascals for bulk graphite. These experiments establish graphene as the strongest material ever measured, and show that atomically perfect nanoscale materials can be mechanically tested to deformations well beyond the linear regime.

15,863 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work reviews the historical development of Transition metal dichalcogenides, methods for preparing atomically thin layers, their electronic and optical properties, and prospects for future advances in electronics and optoelectronics.
Abstract: Single-layer metal dichalcogenides are two-dimensional semiconductors that present strong potential for electronic and sensing applications complementary to that of graphene.

11,301 citations


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Performance
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Author's H-index: 29

No. of papers from the Author in previous years
YearPapers
20216
20203
20198
20189
20176
20164