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Timothy Marks

Bio: Timothy Marks is an academic researcher from University of Wisconsin-Madison. The author has contributed to research in topics: Cognition & Activities of daily living. The author has an hindex of 2, co-authored 5 publications receiving 6 citations.

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The reliability, validity, and clinical utility of the Menu Task (MT) as a screening measure of functional cognition to assess the need for occupational therapy services were examined and the capacity to address the gap in the proposed CMS assessment of Medicare recipients across postacute care settings was supported.
Abstract: Importance: The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) has identified the need to assess functional cognition as part of the postacute care planning process. Objective: We examined the reliability, validity, and clinical utility of the Menu Task (MT) as a screening measure of functional cognition to assess the need for occupational therapy services. Design: Cross-sectional study testing a convenience sample of community-dwelling older adults (n = 130) and adults hospitalized for elective orthopedic surgery (n = 60). The MT and four neuropsychological screening tests—the Brief Interview of Mental Status, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, Trail Making Tests A and B, and an instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) scale—were administered. Setting: Community-dwelling participants were tested at the University of Wisconsin occupational therapy program and in community settings. Hospitalized participants were tested at the University of Missouri Orthopedic Institute. Participants: We recruited healthy community-dwelling adults in Madison, WI (community sample; n = 130) and patients hospitalized for elective orthopedic surgery in Columbia, MO (hospital sample; n = 60). Inclusion criteria were age 55 yr or older, living in the community, and willingness to be tested in English; for the hospital sample, participants had to be referred for elective orthopedic surgery requiring a hospital stay and be independent in activities of daily living before being admitted for surgery. Results: We found significant differences between groups classified as impaired or not impaired on the basis of MT scores. Participants classified as impaired on the MT performed significantly less well than those classified as not impaired on the neurocognitive and IADL measures. Conclusion: The reliability and validity of the MT were supported. What This Article Adds: The American Occupational Therapy Association and the occupational therapy experts advising CMS have stressed the importance of a brief performance-based screening tool to identify people who need more comprehensive occupational therapy evaluation. The implementation of a functional cognition screening tool as part of the required CMS assessment protocol should greatly increase the number of patients referred for occupational therapy evaluation and treatment. The MT has the capacity to address the gap in the proposed CMS assessment of Medicare recipients across postacute care settings.

13 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Medi-Cog-R appears to be a useful screening measure for functional cognition and can be used to prompt further assessment and intervention to promote community independence.
Abstract: Background and Objectives: The identification of functional performance deficits is critical to the community independence of older adults. We examined whether a combined cognitive and performance-based medication management measure would be able to better classify an individual's functional cognitive status and potential for instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) impairment than either measure alone. Research Design and Methods: Community-dwelling adults age 55 and older (n = 185) were administered the Mini-Cog, the Medication Transfer Screen-Revised (MTS-R), a combination measure the Medi-Cog-Revised (Medi-Cog-R), the Performance Assessment of Self-Care Skills (PASS) Checkbook Balancing and Shopping tasks (PCST), additional cognitive screening measures, and a self-report daily living scale. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were computed for the Mini-Cog, MTS-R and the Medi-Cog-R using the PCST performance as the criterion measure. The area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity were computed for each measure. Results: The Medi-Cog-R most accurately identified individuals as impaired on the PCST. An AUC statistic of 0.82 for the Medi-Cog-R was greater than either the Mini-Cog (0.75) or the MTS-R (0.73). The Medi-Cog-R demonstrated a sensitivity of 0.71 and a specificity of 0.78 in classifying individuals with impaired IADL as measured by the PCST. Discussion and Implications: The Mini-Cog, the MTS-R, and the Medi-Cog-R all show discriminant validity, but the combined measure demonstrates greater sensitivity and specificity than either component measure alone in identifying IADL impairment. The Medi-Cog-R appears to be a useful screening measure for functional cognition and can be used to prompt further assessment and intervention to promote community independence.

5 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Menu Task demonstrates sensitivity to functional cognitive impairments in a community sample and concurrent and construct validity was supported.
Abstract: Occupational therapists need a brief tool to identify the potential for functional cognitive deficits leading to impaired occupational performance. The objective is to establish the sensitivity and specificity, concurrent and known-group validity of the Menu Task by comparison with performance on the Weekly Calendar Planning Activity (WCPA). Using a cross-sectional design, we administered the Menu Task and the WCPA to a community-dwelling convenience sample of 287 adults aged from 55 to 93 years. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis estimated sensitivity and specificity. Concurrent and known-group construct validity was examined by comparing scores on the Menu Task with the WCPA scores. As a result, a new cutoff score of 9 was established for the Menu Task (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.80, sensitivity = 0.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [0.73, 0.97]; specificity = 0.58, 95% CI = [0.52, 0.64]). Both concurrent and construct validity were supported. The Menu Task demonstrates sensitivity to functional cognitive impairments in a community sample.

2 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, occupational therapy practitioners can tailor assessments and interventions to meet clients' needs by following the Occupational Therapy Practice Framework and using established processes for occupational therapy assessment and treatment of functional cognition.
Abstract: Occupational therapy's focus on functional cognition offers a distinct approach to the assessment of and intervention for occupational performance deficits that may follow coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Although the majority of people survive COVID-19, many people experience persistent functional cognitive sequelae severe enough to interfere with occupational performance. After COVID-19, people may be categorized as either (1) those who experience severe or critical illness requiring hospitalization or (2) those with mild to moderate presentations of the virus without hospitalization. A third group of those who do not have ongoing signs of active infection but who experience new, lasting, or deteriorating symptoms has begun to emerge and may represent a distinct COVID-19 long-haul syndrome. By following the Occupational Therapy Practice Framework and using established processes for occupational therapy assessment and treatment of functional cognition, occupational therapy practitioners can tailor assessments and interventions to meet clients' needs.

2 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Findings support the Menu Task as a potential screening tool for functional cognition deficits.
Abstract: Date Presented 4/20/2018 This study examined the construct validity of the Menu Task and two medication-based tasks to determine which assessment may be a suitable screening tool for functional cognition. Findings support the Menu Task as a potential screening tool for functional cognition deficits. Primary Author and Speaker: Timothy Marks Additional Authors and Speakers: Dorothy Edwards Contributing Authors: Gordon M. Giles, Muhammad O. Al-Heizan, Sarah Maloney, Adeola Solaru, Victoria Larkin, Braeden Padesky

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21 Jun 2010

1,966 citations

DOI
27 Apr 2007
TL;DR: The Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS) is an innovative observational assessment that is used to measure the quality of a person’s performance of domestic or basic activities of daily living (ADL).
Abstract: The Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS) is an innovative observational assessment that is used to measure the quality of a person’s performance of domestic (instrumental) or basic (personal) activities of daily living (ADL). The quality of the person’s ADL performance is assessed by rating the effort, efficiency, safety, and independence of 16 ADL motor and 20 ADL process skill items. The ADL motor and ADL process skill are analogous to the goal-directed actions defined under the Activities and Participation domains of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (World Health Organization [WHO], 2001), and are thus the small units of performance that when carried out, one by one, result in the overall task being completed.

477 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The use of virtual reality-based tests was shown to be sensitive to the detection of cognitive deficits in Activities of Daily Living and can help to predict the level of personal autonomy in patients who are in an institutional environment.
Abstract: Purpose: Cognitive instrumental activities of daily living are particularly related to executive functions, such as scheduling appointments, monthly payments, managing the household economy...

27 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The occupational therapists' use of assessment tools with clients suffering from neurocognitive impairments is inconsistent across the globe, and the identification of international best practices for selecting and implementing proper outcome measures is warranted.
Abstract: This exploratory study was aimed at evaluating the current status of global occupational therapy practice on the use of assessments for clients with cognitive impairments and providing recommendations for ongoing evidence. We targeted international occupational therapy clinicians working with clients experiencing neurocognitive impairments. 323 occupational therapists from a wide range of clinical practice areas participated in the study. A large number of therapists used noncognitive specific assessments with a focus on functional approaches. The most commonly used standardized assessments were the COPM (56.7%), followed by MMSE (54.2%) and MoCA (45.5%), while the nonstandardized assessments were clinical observation (38.4%) and generic ADL assessment (34.1%). The use of main assessments was significantly different across world regions (p < 0.05), as were the reasons for choosing them (p < 0.05). The occupational therapists' use of assessment tools with clients suffering from neurocognitive impairments is inconsistent across the globe. The identification of international best practices for selecting and implementing proper outcome measures is warranted. It is essential to promote the development of an occupational therapy initiative to support the use of appropriate assessments at the international levels to facilitate consistent best practice.

12 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It was hypothesised that measures sensitive to executive functioning (TMT B and MoCA) would significantly explain MT performance after controlling for demographic variables and adding measures of cognitive function to the model, providing additional evidence for construct validity of the MT.
Abstract: This study evaluated the construct validity of the Menu Task (MT): a new performance-based screening measure of functional cognition. We enrolled 114 community dwelling adults (55 years or older) i...

10 citations