Author

# Timour Radko

Other affiliations: Florida State University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Bio: Timour Radko is an academic researcher from Naval Postgraduate School. The author has contributed to research in topics: Vortex & Instability. The author has an hindex of 25, co-authored 77 publications receiving 2365 citations. Previous affiliations of Timour Radko include Florida State University & Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Topics: Vortex, Instability, Stratification (water), Eddy, Potential vorticity

##### Papers published on a yearly basis

##### Papers

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors applied residual mean theory to the streamwise-averaged Antarctic Circumpolar Current to obtain a concise description of the processes that set up its stratification and meridional overturning circulation on an f plane.

Abstract: Residual-mean theory is applied to the streamwise-averaged Antarctic Circumpolar Current to arrive at a concise description of the processes that set up its stratification and meridional overturning circulation on an f plane. Simple solutions are found in which transfer by geostrophic eddies colludes with applied winds and buoyancy fluxes to determine the depth and stratification of the thermocline and the pattern of associated (residual) meridional overturning circulation.

388 citations

01 Apr 2003

TL;DR: In this article, the authors applied residual mean theory to the streamwise-averaged Antarctic Circumpolar Current to obtain a concise description of the processes that set up its stratification and meridional overturning circulation on an f plane.

Abstract: Residual-mean theory is applied to the streamwise-averaged Antarctic Circumpolar Current to arrive at a concise description of the processes that set up its stratification and meridional overturning circulation on an f plane. Simple solutions are found in which transfer by geostrophic eddies colludes with applied winds and buoyancy fluxes to determine the depth and stratification of the thermocline and the pattern of associated (residual) meridional overturning circulation.

362 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the dynamics of layer formation by salt fingers from the uniform temperature and salinity gradients is studied by direct numerical simulations of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations.

Abstract: The dynamics of layer formation by salt fingers from the uniform temperature and salinity gradients is studied by direct numerical simulations of the two-dimensional Navier–Stokes equations. It is shown that formation of steps in the model is caused by the parametric variation of the flux ratio (γ = wT /wS )a s af unction of the density ratio (R), which leads to an instability of equilibrium with uniform stratification. These unstable large-scale perturbations continuously grow in time until well-defined layers are formed. Subsequent evolution of the numerical staircases is explained by considering the secondary instabilities of a series of salt finger interfaces.

175 citations

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08 Feb 2018TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a systematic overview of the classical theory of double-diffusive convection in a coherent narrative, bringing together the disparate literature in this developing field, and provide a balanced blend of fundamental theory and real-world examples.

Abstract: Double-diffusive convection is a mixing process driven by the interaction of two fluid components which diffuse at different rates. Leading expert Timour Radko presents the first systematic overview of the classical theory of double-diffusive convection in a coherent narrative, bringing together the disparate literature in this developing field. The book begins by exploring idealized dynamical models and illustrating key principles by examples of oceanic phenomena. Building on the theory, it then explains the dynamics of structures resulting from double-diffusive instabilities, such as the little-understood phenomenon of thermohaline staircases. The book also surveys non-oceanographic applications, such as industrial, astrophysical and geological manifestations, and discusses the climatic and biological consequences of double-diffusive convection. Providing a balanced blend of fundamental theory and real-world examples, this is an indispensable resource for academic researchers, professionals and graduate students in physical oceanography, fluid dynamics, applied mathematics, astrophysics, geophysics and climatology.

127 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors studied the evolution of a double-diffusive system, starting from an initial statistically homogeneous fingering state, and found that it spontaneously transforms into a layered state.

Abstract: Regions of the ocean's thermocline unstable to salt fingering are often observed to host thermohaline staircases, stacks of deep well-mixed convective layers separated by thin stably-stratified interfaces. Decades after their discovery, however, their origin remains controversial. In this paper we use 3D direct numerical simulations to shed light on the problem. We study the evolution of an analogous double-diffusive system, starting from an initial statistically homogeneous fingering state and find that it spontaneously transforms into a layered state. By analysing our results in the light of the mean-field theory developed in Paper I, a clear picture of the sequence of events resulting in the staircase formation emerges. A collective instability of homogeneous fingering convection first excites a field of gravity waves, with a well-defined vertical wavelength. However, the waves saturate early through regular but localized breaking events, and are not directly responsible for the formation of the staircase. Meanwhile, slower-growing, horizontally invariant but vertically quasi-periodic gamma-modes are also excited and grow according to the gamma-instability mechanism. Our results suggest that the nonlinear interaction between these various mean-field modes of instability leads to the selection of one particular gamma-mode as the staircase progenitor. Upon reaching a critical amplitude, this progenitor overturns into a fully-formed staircase. We conclude by extending the results of our simulations to real oceanic parameter values, and find that the progenitor gamma-mode is expected to grow on a timescale of a few hours, and leads to the formation of a thermohaline staircase in about one day with an initial spacing of the order of one to two metres.

101 citations

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01 Jan 1997

TL;DR: The boundary layer equations for plane, incompressible, and steady flow are described in this paper, where the boundary layer equation for plane incompressibility is defined in terms of boundary layers.

Abstract: The boundary layer equations for plane, incompressible, and steady flow are
$$\matrix{ {u{{\partial u} \over {\partial x}} + v{{\partial u} \over {\partial y}} = - {1 \over \varrho }{{\partial p} \over {\partial x}} + v{{{\partial ^2}u} \over {\partial {y^2}}},} \cr {0 = {{\partial p} \over {\partial y}},} \cr {{{\partial u} \over {\partial x}} + {{\partial v} \over {\partial y}} = 0.} \cr }$$

2,598 citations

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TL;DR: Specialized experiments with atmosphere and coupled models show that the main damping mechanism for sea ice region surface temperature is reduced upward heat flux through the adjacent ice-free oceans resulting in reduced atmospheric heat transport into the region.

Abstract: The potential for sea ice-albedo feedback to give rise to nonlinear climate change in the Arctic Ocean – defined as a nonlinear relationship between polar and global temperature change or, equivalently, a time-varying polar amplification – is explored in IPCC AR4 climate models. Five models supplying SRES A1B ensembles for the 21 st century are examined and very linear relationships are found between polar and global temperatures (indicating linear Arctic Ocean climate change), and between polar temperature and albedo (the potential source of nonlinearity). Two of the climate models have Arctic Ocean simulations that become annually sea ice-free under the stronger CO 2 increase to quadrupling forcing. Both of these runs show increases in polar amplification at polar temperatures above-5 o C and one exhibits heat budget changes that are consistent with the small ice cap instability of simple energy balance models. Both models show linear warming up to a polar temperature of-5 o C, well above the disappearance of their September ice covers at about-9 o C. Below-5 o C, surface albedo decreases smoothly as reductions move, progressively, to earlier parts of the sunlit period. Atmospheric heat transport exerts a strong cooling effect during the transition to annually ice-free conditions. Specialized experiments with atmosphere and coupled models show that the main damping mechanism for sea ice region surface temperature is reduced upward heat flux through the adjacent ice-free oceans resulting in reduced atmospheric heat transport into the region.

1,356 citations

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06 Nov 2006TL;DR: A comprehensive unified treatment of atmospheric and oceanic fluid dynamics is provided in this paper, including rotation and stratification, vorticity, scaling and approximations, and wave-mean flow interactions and turbulence.

Abstract: Fluid dynamics is fundamental to our understanding of the atmosphere and oceans. Although many of the same principles of fluid dynamics apply to both the atmosphere and oceans, textbooks tend to concentrate on the atmosphere, the ocean, or the theory of geophysical fluid dynamics (GFD). This textbook provides a comprehensive unified treatment of atmospheric and oceanic fluid dynamics. The book introduces the fundamentals of geophysical fluid dynamics, including rotation and stratification, vorticity and potential vorticity, and scaling and approximations. It discusses baroclinic and barotropic instabilities, wave-mean flow interactions and turbulence, and the general circulation of the atmosphere and ocean. Student problems and exercises are included at the end of each chapter. Atmospheric and Oceanic Fluid Dynamics: Fundamentals and Large-Scale Circulation will be an invaluable graduate textbook on advanced courses in GFD, meteorology, atmospheric science and oceanography, and an excellent review volume for researchers. Additional resources are available at www.cambridge.org/9780521849692.

1,022 citations

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TL;DR: A review of recent studies emphasizes the importance of wind-driven upwelling in the Southern Ocean for global ocean circulation as discussed by the authors, which plays a central role in the climate and its variability.

Abstract: The meridional overturning circulation of the ocean plays a central role in the climate and its variability. This Review of recent studies emphasizes the importance of wind-driven upwelling in the Southern Ocean for global ocean circulation.

799 citations