Other affiliations: American Museum of Natural History, Institute of Tropical Medicine Antwerp, Natural History Museum ...read more
Bio: Tine Huyse is an academic researcher from Royal Museum for Central Africa. The author has contributed to research in topics: Gyrodactylus & Monogenea. The author has an hindex of 32, co-authored 105 publications receiving 2770 citations. Previous affiliations of Tine Huyse include American Museum of Natural History & Institute of Tropical Medicine Antwerp.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The spatial fragmentation of parasites and the population genetics processes behind their diversification in an effort to bridge the micro- and macro-scales is focused on.
University of Montpellier1, Institut national de la recherche agronomique2, Natural History Museum3, Royal Museum for Central Africa4, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven5, University of Valencia6, Spanish National Research Council7, University of Corsica Pascal Paoli8, University of Toulouse9, Institut de veille sanitaire10
TL;DR: The molecular data suggest that the parasites were imported into Corsica by individuals infected in west Africa, specifically Senegal, and hybridisation between S haematobium and the cattle schistosome S bovis had a putative role in this outbreak.
Abstract: Summary Background Schistosomiasis is a snail-borne parasitic disease endemic in several tropical and subtropical countries. However, in the summer of 2013, an unexpected outbreak of urogenital schistosomiasis occurred in Corsica, with more than 120 local people or tourists infected. We used a multidisciplinary approach to investigate the epidemiology of urogenital schistosomiasis in Corsica, aiming to elucidate the origin of the outbreak. Methods We did parasitological and malacological surveys at nine potential sites of infection. With the snails found, we carried out snail–parasite compatibility experiments by exposing snails to schistosome larvae recovered from the urine of a locally infected Corsican patient. Genetic analysis of both mitochondrial ( cox1 ) and nuclear (internal transcribed spacer) DNA data from the Schistosoma eggs or miracidia recovered from the infected patients was conducted to elucidate the epidemiology of this outbreak. Findings We identified two main infection foci along the Cavu River, with many Bulinus truncatus snails found in both locations. Of the 3544 snails recovered across all sites, none were naturally infected, but laboratory-based experimental infections confirmed their compatibility with the schistosomes isolated from patients. Molecular characterisation of 73 eggs or miracidia isolated from 12 patients showed infection with Schistosoma haematobium, S haematobium–Schistosoma bovis hybrids, and S bovis . Further sequence data analysis also showed that the Corsican schistosomes were closely related to those from Senegal in west Africa. Interpretation The freshwater swimming pools of the Cavu River harbour many B truncatus snails, which are capable of transmitting S haematobium -group schistosomes. Our molecular data suggest that the parasites were imported into Corsica by individuals infected in west Africa, specifically Senegal. Hybridisation between S haematobium and the cattle schistosome S bovis had a putative role in this outbreak, showing how easily and rapidly urogenital schistosomiasis can be introduced and spread into novel areas where Bulinus snails are endemic, and how hybridisation could increase the colonisation potential of schistosomes. Furthermore our results show the potential risk of schistosomiasis outbreaks in other European areas, warranting close monitoring and surveillance of all potential transmission foci. Funding WHO, ANSES, RICET, and the Ministry of Health and Consumption.
TL;DR: In this article, nuclear and mitochondrial markers revealed unexpected natural interactions between a bovine and human Schistosoma species: S. bovis and S. haematobium.
Abstract: Schistosomiasis is a disease of great medical and veterinary importance in tropical and subtropical regions, caused by parasitic flatworms of the genus Schistosoma (subclass Digenea). Following major water development schemes in the 1980s, schistosomiasis has become an important parasitic disease of children living in the Senegal River Basin (SRB). During molecular parasitological surveys, nuclear and mitochondrial markers revealed unexpected natural interactions between a bovine and human Schistosoma species: S. bovis and S. haematobium, respectively. Hybrid schistosomes recovered from the urine and faeces of children and the intermediate snail hosts of both parental species, Bulinus truncatus and B. globosus, presented a nuclear ITS rRNA sequence identical to S. haematobium, while the partial mitochondrial cox1 sequence was identified as S. bovis. Molecular data suggest that the hybrids are not 1st generation and are a result of parental and/or hybrid backcrosses, indicating a stable hybrid zone. Larval stages with the reverse genetic profile were also found and are suggested to be F1 progeny. The data provide indisputable evidence for the occurrence of bidirectional introgressive hybridization between a bovine and a human Schistosoma species. Hybrid species have been found infecting B. truncatus, a snail species that is now very abundant throughout the SRB. The recent increase in urinary schistosomiasis in the villages along the SRB could therefore be a direct effect of the increased transmission through B. truncatus. Hybridization between schistosomes under laboratory conditions has been shown to result in heterosis (higher fecundity, faster maturation time, wider intermediate host spectrum), having important implications on disease prevalence, pathology and treatment. If this new hybrid exhibits the same hybrid vigour, it could develop into an emerging pathogen, necessitating further control strategies in zones where both parental species overlap.
TL;DR: The group of gill parasites evolved from a host switch from G. arcuatus, parasitizing the three-spined stickleback onto the gobies, followed by several host-switching events among the respective goby hosts, suggesting a role for refugia-mediated mixing of parasite species.
Abstract: The combination of exceptionally high species diversity, high host specificity, and a complex reproduction system raises many questions about the underlying mechanisms triggering speciation in the flatworm genus Gyrodactylus. The coevolutionary history with their goby hosts was investigated using both topology- and distance-based approaches; phylogenies were constructed of the V4 region of the 18S rRNA and the complete ITS rDNA region for the parasites, and 12S and 16S mtDNA fragments for the hosts. The overall fit between both trees was significant according to the topology-based programs (TreeMap 1.0, 2.0β and TreeFitter), but not according to the timed analysis in TreeMap 2.0β and the distance-based method (ParaFit). An absolute timing of speciation events in host and parasite ruled out the possibility of synchronous speciation for the gill parasites, favouring the distance-based result. Based on this information together with the biological background of host and parasite, the following TreeMap solution was selected. The group of gill parasites evolved from a host switch from G. arcuatus, parasitizing the three-spined stickleback onto the gobies, followed by several host-switching events among the respective goby hosts. The timing of these events is estimated to date back to the Late Pleistocene, suggesting a role for refugia-mediated mixing of parasite species. In contrast, it is suggested that cospeciation in the fin-parasites resulted in several host-associated species complexes. This illustrates that phylogenetically conserved host-switching mimics the phylogenetic signature of cospeciation, confounding topology-based programs.
TL;DR: The "star" phylogeny might suggest that these gobies evolved in a very short time period, possibly linked to the drastic alterations in the Mediterranean Sea during and immediately after the Messinian salinity crisis at the end of the Miocene.
TL;DR: The approach overcomes the limitations of traditional strategies for obtaining mitochondrial genomes for species with little or no mitochondrial sequence information at hand and represents a fast and highly efficient in silico alternative to laborious conventional strategies relying on initial long-range PCR.
Abstract: We present an in silico approach for the reconstruction of complete mitochondrial genomes of nonmodel organisms directly from next-generation sequencing (NGS) data—mitochondrial baiting and iterative mapping (MITObim). The method is straightforward even if only (i) distantly related mitochondrial genomes or (ii) mitochondrial barcode sequences are available as starting-reference sequences or seeds, respectively. We demonstrate the efficiency of the approach in case studies using real NGS data sets of the two monogenean ectoparasites species Gyrodactylus thymalli and Gyrodactylus derjavinoides including their respective teleost hosts European grayling (Thymallus thymallus) and Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). MITObim appeared superior to existing tools in terms of accuracy, runtime and memory requirements and fully automatically recovered mitochondrial genomes exceeding 99.5% accuracy from total genomic DNA derived NGS data sets in <24 h using a standard desktop computer. The approach overcomes the limitations of traditional strategies for obtaining mitochondrial genomes for species with little or no mitochondrial sequence information at hand and represents a fast and highly efficient in silico alternative to laborious conventional strategies relying on initial long-range PCR. We furthermore demonstrate the applicability of MITObim for metagenomic/pooled data sets using simulated data. MITObim is an easy to use tool even for biologists with modest bioinformatics experience. The software is made available as open source pipeline under the MIT license at https://github.com/ chrishah/MITObim.
15 Mar 2012
TL;DR: This current edition of this reference work is written by six major contributors and contains either rewritten or new chapters, including one 29-page chapter entitled "Ophthalmology in the Tropics" by F. C. Rodger, MD.
Abstract: The first edition of this reference work was published in 1898, and the last update was published in 1972. This current edition is written by six major contributors and contains either rewritten or new chapters, including one 29-page chapter entitled "Ophthalmology in the Tropics" by F. C. Rodger, MD. Not only is this material valuable to physicians in endemic areas, but it is also important for travelers to the tropics who may return home with these diseases. Most of the chapters discuss the following aspects of tropical disease: cause, transmission, immunology, epidemiology, geographical distribution, pathologic condition, clinical findings, and diagnosis (including laboratory findings, treatment, and prevention). Beside chapters on infections, there are chapters on disorders due to heat, nutritional diseases, and venoms and poisons, and appendices on protozoology, helminthology, entomology, and clinical pathologic conditions. Excellent illustrations of end-stage pathologic conditions are disconcerting. Ophthalmologists would be most interested in the discussion
TL;DR: The educated lavman, for whom this book is intended, will find the author's leaps from the level of the quoted material into sophisticated physical chemistry and back again disconcerting at least, if not completely confusing.
Abstract: Clearly, the possibility that Van Peenen's statements are correct exists, but no molecular geneticist would contend that these assertions have been established, in any but a very few cases, which appear at present to be atypical. The educated lavman, for whom this book is intended, will find the author's leaps from the level of the quoted material into sophisticated physical chemistry and back again disconcerting at least, if not completely confusing. It can be said, however, that the authors have assembled an excellent group of illustrations; lecturers in elementary genetics wishing to locate clear illustrations to use as slides would do well to look in this book first.