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Tobias Rüttenauer

Bio: Tobias Rüttenauer is an academic researcher from University of Oxford. The author has contributed to research in topics: Environmental pollution & Demographic economics. The author has an hindex of 6, co-authored 9 publications receiving 80 citations. Previous affiliations of Tobias Rüttenauer include Kaiserslautern University of Technology.

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Results reveal that the share of minorities within a census cell indeed positively correlates with the exposure to industrial pollution, and highlights the importance of spatial clustering processes in environmental inequality research.

35 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Results reveal that the most commonly used spatial autoregressive and spatial error specifications yield severe drawbacks, and several—quite realistic—situations exist in which the SLX outperforms the more complex SDM and SDEM specifications.
Abstract: Spatial regression models provide the opportunity to analyze spatial data and spatial processes. Yet, several model specifications can be used, all assuming different types of spatial dependence. T...

33 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors used longitudinal data from the German Socioeconomic Panel to investigate the process of selective migration and its connection to the perceived exposure to air pollution in Germany.
Abstract: Socio-economically disadvantaged and ethnic minorities are affected by a disproportionately high exposure to environmental pollution. Yet, it is unclear if selective migration causes this disproportionate exposure experienced by low-income and minority households. The study uses longitudinal data from the German SocioEconomic Panel to investigate the process of selective migration and its connection to the perceived exposure to air pollution in Germany. Consistent with the selective migration argument, movers experience a decrease in exposure according to their income, whiles stationary households do not experience a reductive effect due to income. Furthermore, the moving returns differ by minority status. While native German households experience less exposure to pollution when moving to a new place of residence, minority households do not. Additional analyses show that this minority effect cannot be explained by socio-economic differences, but completely vanishes in the second immigrant generation.

18 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors studied the changing composition of activists of the German challenger party AfD during its formative period and found that the changing member base has fuelled the programmatic radicalisation of the party.
Abstract: This paper studies the changing composition of activists of the German challenger party AfD during its formative period. Drawing on the spatial density of party activists linked to socio-contextual variables and a pre-post design, we demonstrate that the challenger party's member base has significantly transformed in the course of the party's institutionalisation. Owing to a rapid influx of new members and the withdrawal of others after an internal split of the party, the share of activists in high-income areas decreased significantly, while it increased in socio-structurally disadvantaged areas within Germany. The findings suggests that the changing member base has fuelled the programmatic radicalisation of the party.

18 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This study derives the bias in conventional FE models and shows that fixed effects individual slope (FEIS) models can overcome this problem and proposes two versions of the Hausman test that can be used to identify misspecification in FE models.
Abstract: Fixed effects (FE) panel models have been used extensively in the past, as those models control for all stable heterogeneity between units. Still, the conventional FE estimator relies on the assump...

14 citations


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Posted Content
01 Jan 2014
TL;DR: This Review presents basic facts regarding the long-run evolution of income and wealth inequality in Europe and the United States and discusses possible interpretations and lessons for the future.
Abstract: This Review presents basic facts regarding the long-run evolution of income and wealth inequality in Europe and the United States. Income and wealth inequality was very high a century ago, particularly in Europe, but dropped dramatically in the first half of the 20th century. Income inequality has surged back in the United States since the 1970s so that the United States is much more unequal than Europe today. We discuss possible interpretations and lessons for the future.

580 citations

01 Jan 2002
TL;DR: The authors make a selectivity bias correction, simultaneously determine union status and economic outcomes, and develop an unobservables model using long-term data, and use long-time data.
Abstract: But union members are different from nonmembers in unobserved ways, biasing your estimates. Y ou should ... make a selectivity bias correction ... simultaneously determine union status and economic outcomes ... develop an unobservables model ... USE LONGITUDINAL DATA. (Archetypical comment on virtually any study of the economic effects of umomsm, or suitably modified, on any other empirical subject.)

294 citations

01 Jan 2005
TL;DR: In this article, Apgar et al. show how unequal housing choices and sprawling development create an unequal geography of opportunity, and how these problems cannot be addressed effectively if society assumes that segregation will take care of itself.
Abstract: A popular version of history trumpets the United States as a diverse "nation of immigrants," welcome to all. The truth, however, is that local communities have a long history of ambivalence toward new arrivals and minorities. Persistent patterns of segregation by race and income still exist in housing and schools, along with a growing emphasis on rapid metropolitan development (sprawl) that encourages upwardly mobile families to abandon older communities and their problems. This dual pattern is becoming increasingly important as America grows more diverse than ever and economic inequality increases. Two recent trends compel new attention to these issues. First, the geography of race and class represents a crucial litmus test for the new "regionalism" uthe political movement to address the linked fortunes of cities and suburbs. Second, housing has all but disappeared as a major social policy issue over the past two decades. This timely book shows how unequal housing choices and sprawling development create an unequal geography of opportunity. It emerges from a project sponsored by the Civil Rights Project at Harvard University in collaboration with the Joint Center for Housing Studies and the Brookings Institution. The contributors upolicy analysts, political observers, social scientists, and urban planners udocument key patterns, their consequences, and how we can respond, taking a hard look at both successes and failures of the past. Place still matters, perhaps more than ever. High levels of segregation shape education and job opportunity, crime and insecurity, and long-term economic prospects. These problems cannot be addressed effectively if society assumes that segregation will take care of itself. Contributors include William Apgar (Harvard University), Judith Bell (PolicyLink), Angela Glover Blackwell (PolicyLink), Allegra Calder (Harvard), Karen Chapple (Cal-Berkeley), Camille Charles (Penn), Mary Cunningham (Urban Institute), Casey Dawkins (Virginia Tech), Stephanie DeLuca (Johns Hopkins), John Goering (CUNY), Edward Goetz (U. of Minnesota), Bruce Katz (Brookings), Barbara Lukermann (U. of Minnesota), Gerrit Knaap (U. of Maryland), Arthur Nelson (Virginia Tech), Rolf Pendall (Cornell), Susan J. Popkin (Urban Institute), James Rosenbaum (Northwestern), Stephen L. Ross (U. of Connecticut), Mara Sidney (Rutgers), Phillip Tegeler (Poverty and Race Research Action Council), Tammy Tuck (Northwestern), Margery Austin Turner (Urban Institute), William Julius Wilson (Harvard).

129 citations

Posted Content
TL;DR: This work argues that identification problems bedevil most applied spatial research and advocates an alternative approach based on the ‘experimental paradigm’ which puts issues of identification and causality at centre stage.
Abstract: We argue that identification problems bedevil most applied spatial research Spatial econometrics solves these problems by deriving estimators assuming that functional forms are known and by using model comparison techniques to let the data choose between competing specifications We argue that in most situations of interest this, at best, achieves only very weak identification Worse, in most cases, such an approach will simply be uninformative about the economic processes at work rendering much applied spatial econometric research ‘pointless’, unless the main aim is simply description of the data We advocate an alternative approach based on the ‘experimental paradigm’ which puts issues of identification and causality at centre stage

100 citations