Author

# Tomi Silander

Other affiliations: National University of Singapore, University of Helsinki, University of Wisconsin-Madison

Bio: Tomi Silander is an academic researcher from Helsinki Institute for Information Technology. The author has contributed to research in topics: Bayesian network & Bayesian probability. The author has an hindex of 23, co-authored 56 publications receiving 2200 citations. Previous affiliations of Tomi Silander include National University of Singapore & University of Helsinki.

##### Papers published on a yearly basis

##### Papers

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13 Jul 2006TL;DR: In this paper, the problem of learning the best Bayesian network structure with respect to a decomposable score such as BDe, BIC or AIC is studied, which is known to be NP-hard and becomes quickly infeasible as the number of variables increases.

Abstract: We study the problem of learning the best Bayesian network structure with respect to a decomposable score such as BDe, BIC or AIC. This problem is known to be NP-hard, which means that solving it becomes quickly infeasible as the number of variables increases. Nevertheless, in this paper we show that it is possible to learn the best Bayesian network structure with over 30 variables, which covers many practically interesting cases. Our algorithm is less complicated and more efficient than the techniques presented earlier. It can be easily parallelized, and offers a possibility for efficient exploration of the best networks consistent with different variable orderings. In the experimental part of the paper we compare the performance of the algorithm to the previous state-of-the-art algorithm. Free source-code and an online-demo can be found at http://b-course.hiit.fi/bene.

378 citations

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20 Jun 2003

TL;DR: In this article, a method for estimating a receiver's location (X) in a wireless communication environment (RN) having several channels is proposed, where a set of calibration data (CD) is determined for each calibration point, each set comprising the location and at least one measured signal parameter (V) for each of several channels.

Abstract: A method for estimating a receiver's location (X) in a wireless communication environment (RN) having several channels. Each channel has at least one signal parameter (V) that varies with location (X) differently from the other channels. A set of calibration data (CD) is determined for each calibration point, each set comprising the location (X) and at least one measured signal parameter (V) for each of several channels. The calibration data (CD) serve as a basis for a statistical model (SM) of the signal parameters (V) versus a receiver's location. A set of observed signal parameters (CO) is determined, the set comprising at least one signal parameter (V) for each of several channels at the receiver's location (X). A location estimate (LE) approximating the location (X) of the receiver (R) is determined on the basis of the statistical model (SM) and the set of observed signal parameters (CO).

327 citations

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TL;DR: An approach to classify toxicants based upon their influence on profiles of mRNA transcripts, and a diagnostic set of 12 transcripts was identified that provided an estimated 100% predictive accuracy based on leave-one-out cross-validation.

Abstract: We have developed an approach to classify toxicants based upon their influence on profiles of mRNA transcripts. Changes in liver gene expression were examined after exposure of mice to 24 model treatments that fall into five well-studied toxicological categories: peroxisome proliferators, aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists, noncoplanar polychlorinated biphenyls, inflammatory agents, and hypoxia-inducing agents. Analysis of 1200 transcripts using both a correlation-based approach and a probabilistic approach resulted in a classification accuracy of between 50 and 70%. However, with the use of a forward parameter selection scheme, a diagnostic set of 12 transcripts was identified that provided an estimated 100% predictive accuracy based on leave-one-out cross-validation. Expansion of this approach to additional chemicals of regulatory concern could serve as an important screening step in a new era of toxicological testing.

242 citations

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TL;DR: With the restrictions stated in the support material, B-Course is a powerful analysis tool exploiting several theoretically elaborate results developed recently in the fields of Bayesian and causal modeling.

Abstract: B-Course is a free web-based online data analysis tool, which allows the users to analyze their data for multivariate probabilistic dependencies. These dependencies are represented as Bayesian network models. In addition to this, B-Course also offers facilities for inferring certain type of causal dependencies from the data. The software uses a novel "tutorial stylerdquo; user-friendly interface which intertwines the steps in the data analysis with support material that gives an informal introduction to the Bayesian approach adopted. Although the analysis methods, modeling assumptions and restrictions are totally transparent to the user, this transparency is not achieved at the expense of analysis power: with the restrictions stated in the support material, B-Course is a powerful analysis tool exploiting several theoretically elaborate results developed recently in the fields of Bayesian and causal modeling. B-Course can be used with most web-browsers (even Lynx), and the facilities include features such as automatic missing data handling and discretization, a flexible graphical interface for probabilistic inference on the constructed Bayesian network models (for Java enabled browsers), automatic prettyHyphen;printed layout for the networks, exportation of the models, and analysis of the importance of the derived dependencies. In this paper we discuss both the theoretical design principles underlying the B-Course tool, and the pragmatic methods adopted in the implementation of the software.

176 citations

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19 Jul 2007TL;DR: The solution of the network structure optimization problem is highly sensitive to the chosen α parameter value, and explanations for how and why this phenomenon happens are given, and ideas for solving this problem are discussed.

Abstract: BDeu marginal likelihood score is a popular model selection criterion for selecting a Bayesian network structure based on sample data. This non-informative scoring criterion assigns same score for network structures that encode same independence statements. However, before applying the BDeu score, one must determine a single parameter, the equivalent sample size α. Unfortunately no generally accepted rule for determining the α parameter has been suggested. This is disturbing, since in this paper we show through a series of concrete experiments that the solution of the network structure optimization problem is highly sensitive to the chosen α parameter value. Based on these results, we are able to give explanations for how and why this phenomenon happens, and discuss ideas for solving this problem.

93 citations

##### Cited by

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TL;DR: Machine learning addresses many of the same research questions as the fields of statistics, data mining, and psychology, but with differences of emphasis.

Abstract: Machine Learning is the study of methods for programming computers to learn. Computers are applied to a wide range of tasks, and for most of these it is relatively easy for programmers to design and implement the necessary software. However, there are many tasks for which this is difficult or impossible. These can be divided into four general categories. First, there are problems for which there exist no human experts. For example, in modern automated manufacturing facilities, there is a need to predict machine failures before they occur by analyzing sensor readings. Because the machines are new, there are no human experts who can be interviewed by a programmer to provide the knowledge necessary to build a computer system. A machine learning system can study recorded data and subsequent machine failures and learn prediction rules. Second, there are problems where human experts exist, but where they are unable to explain their expertise. This is the case in many perceptual tasks, such as speech recognition, hand-writing recognition, and natural language understanding. Virtually all humans exhibit expert-level abilities on these tasks, but none of them can describe the detailed steps that they follow as they perform them. Fortunately, humans can provide machines with examples of the inputs and correct outputs for these tasks, so machine learning algorithms can learn to map the inputs to the outputs. Third, there are problems where phenomena are changing rapidly. In finance, for example, people would like to predict the future behavior of the stock market, of consumer purchases, or of exchange rates. These behaviors change frequently, so that even if a programmer could construct a good predictive computer program, it would need to be rewritten frequently. A learning program can relieve the programmer of this burden by constantly modifying and tuning a set of learned prediction rules. Fourth, there are applications that need to be customized for each computer user separately. Consider, for example, a program to filter unwanted electronic mail messages. Different users will need different filters. It is unreasonable to expect each user to program his or her own rules, and it is infeasible to provide every user with a software engineer to keep the rules up-to-date. A machine learning system can learn which mail messages the user rejects and maintain the filtering rules automatically. Machine learning addresses many of the same research questions as the fields of statistics, data mining, and psychology, but with differences of emphasis. Statistics focuses on understanding the phenomena that have generated the data, often with the goal of testing different hypotheses about those phenomena. Data mining seeks to find patterns in the data that are understandable by people. Psychological studies of human learning aspire to understand the mechanisms underlying the various learning behaviors exhibited by people (concept learning, skill acquisition, strategy change, etc.).

13,246 citations

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24 Aug 2012

TL;DR: This textbook offers a comprehensive and self-contained introduction to the field of machine learning, based on a unified, probabilistic approach, and is suitable for upper-level undergraduates with an introductory-level college math background and beginning graduate students.

Abstract: Today's Web-enabled deluge of electronic data calls for automated methods of data analysis. Machine learning provides these, developing methods that can automatically detect patterns in data and then use the uncovered patterns to predict future data. This textbook offers a comprehensive and self-contained introduction to the field of machine learning, based on a unified, probabilistic approach. The coverage combines breadth and depth, offering necessary background material on such topics as probability, optimization, and linear algebra as well as discussion of recent developments in the field, including conditional random fields, L1 regularization, and deep learning. The book is written in an informal, accessible style, complete with pseudo-code for the most important algorithms. All topics are copiously illustrated with color images and worked examples drawn from such application domains as biology, text processing, computer vision, and robotics. Rather than providing a cookbook of different heuristic methods, the book stresses a principled model-based approach, often using the language of graphical models to specify models in a concise and intuitive way. Almost all the models described have been implemented in a MATLAB software package--PMTK (probabilistic modeling toolkit)--that is freely available online. The book is suitable for upper-level undergraduates with an introductory-level college math background and beginning graduate students.

8,059 citations

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TL;DR: Clustering algorithms for data sets appearing in statistics, computer science, and machine learning are surveyed, and their applications in some benchmark data sets, the traveling salesman problem, and bioinformatics, a new field attracting intensive efforts are illustrated.

Abstract: Data analysis plays an indispensable role for understanding various phenomena. Cluster analysis, primitive exploration with little or no prior knowledge, consists of research developed across a wide variety of communities. The diversity, on one hand, equips us with many tools. On the other hand, the profusion of options causes confusion. We survey clustering algorithms for data sets appearing in statistics, computer science, and machine learning, and illustrate their applications in some benchmark data sets, the traveling salesman problem, and bioinformatics, a new field attracting intensive efforts. Several tightly related topics, proximity measure, and cluster validation, are also discussed.

5,744 citations

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TL;DR: It is concluded that multiple Imputation for Nonresponse in Surveys should be considered as a legitimate method for answering the question of why people do not respond to survey questions.

Abstract: 25. Multiple Imputation for Nonresponse in Surveys. By D. B. Rubin. ISBN 0 471 08705 X. Wiley, Chichester, 1987. 258 pp. £30.25.

3,216 citations

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12 Mar 2012TL;DR: Comprehensive and coherent, this hands-on text develops everything from basic reasoning to advanced techniques within the framework of graphical models, and develops analytical and problem-solving skills that equip them for the real world.

Abstract: Machine learning methods extract value from vast data sets quickly and with modest resources They are established tools in a wide range of industrial applications, including search engines, DNA sequencing, stock market analysis, and robot locomotion, and their use is spreading rapidly People who know the methods have their choice of rewarding jobs This hands-on text opens these opportunities to computer science students with modest mathematical backgrounds It is designed for final-year undergraduates and master's students with limited background in linear algebra and calculus Comprehensive and coherent, it develops everything from basic reasoning to advanced techniques within the framework of graphical models Students learn more than a menu of techniques, they develop analytical and problem-solving skills that equip them for the real world Numerous examples and exercises, both computer based and theoretical, are included in every chapter Resources for students and instructors, including a MATLAB toolbox, are available online

1,474 citations