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Tommi S. Jaakkola

Bio: Tommi S. Jaakkola is an academic researcher from Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The author has contributed to research in topics: Graph (abstract data type) & Computer science. The author has an hindex of 85, co-authored 328 publications receiving 33537 citations. Previous affiliations of Tommi S. Jaakkola include University of California, Santa Cruz.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper presents a tutorial introduction to the use of variational methods for inference and learning in graphical models (Bayesian networks and Markov random fields), and describes a general framework for generating variational transformations based on convex duality.
Abstract: This paper presents a tutorial introduction to the use of variational methods for inference and learning in graphical models (Bayesian networks and Markov random fields). We present a number of examples of graphical models, including the QMR-DT database, the sigmoid belief network, the Boltzmann machine, and several variants of hidden Markov models, in which it is infeasible to run exact inference algorithms. We then introduce variational methods, which exploit laws of large numbers to transform the original graphical model into a simplified graphical model in which inference is efficient. Inference in the simpified model provides bounds on probabilities of interest in the original model. We describe a general framework for generating variational transformations based on convex duality. Finally we return to the examples and demonstrate how variational algorithms can be formulated in each case.

4,093 citations

Proceedings Article
01 Dec 1998
TL;DR: A natural way of achieving this combination by deriving kernel functions for use in discriminative methods such as support vector machines from generative probability models is developed.
Abstract: Generative probability models such as hidden Markov models provide a principled way of treating missing information and dealing with variable length sequences. On the other hand, discriminative methods such as support vector machines enable us to construct flexible decision boundaries and often result in classification performance superior to that of the model based approaches. An ideal classifier should combine these two complementary approaches. In this paper, we develop a natural way of achieving this combination by deriving kernel functions for use in discriminative methods such as support vector machines from generative probability models. We provide a theoretical justification for this combination as well as demonstrate a substantial improvement in the classification performance in the context of DNA and protein sequence analysis.

1,595 citations

Proceedings Article
01 Dec 2004
TL;DR: A novel approach to collaborative prediction is presented, using low-norm instead of low-rank factorizations, inspired by, and has strong connections to, large-margin linear discrimination.
Abstract: We present a novel approach to collaborative prediction, using low-norm instead of low-rank factorizations. The approach is inspired by, and has strong connections to, large-margin linear discrimination. We show how to learn low-norm factorizations by solving a semi-definite program, and discuss generalization error bounds for them.

1,188 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
20 Feb 2020-Cell
TL;DR: A deep neural network capable of predicting molecules with antibacterial activity is trained and a molecule from the Drug Repurposing Hub-halicin- is discovered that is structurally divergent from conventional antibiotics and displays bactericidal activity against a wide phylogenetic spectrum of pathogens.

1,002 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Aug 1993
TL;DR: A rigorous proof of convergence of DP-based learning algorithms is provided by relating them to the powerful techniques of stochastic approximation theory via a new convergence theorem, which establishes a general class of convergent algorithms to which both TD() and Q-learning belong.
Abstract: Recent developments in the area of reinforcement learning have yielded a number of new algorithms for the prediction and control of Markovian environments. These algorithms, including the TD(λ) algorithm of Sutton (1988) and the Q-learning algorithm of Watkins (1989), can be motivated heuristically as approximations to dynamic programming (DP). In this paper we provide a rigorous proof of convergence of these DP-based learning algorithms by relating them to the powerful techniques of stochastic approximation theory via a new convergence theorem. The theorem establishes a general class of convergent algorithms to which both TD(λ) and Q-learning belong.

936 citations


Cited by
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Proceedings ArticleDOI
07 Jun 2015
TL;DR: Inception as mentioned in this paper is a deep convolutional neural network architecture that achieves the new state of the art for classification and detection in the ImageNet Large-Scale Visual Recognition Challenge 2014 (ILSVRC14).
Abstract: We propose a deep convolutional neural network architecture codenamed Inception that achieves the new state of the art for classification and detection in the ImageNet Large-Scale Visual Recognition Challenge 2014 (ILSVRC14). The main hallmark of this architecture is the improved utilization of the computing resources inside the network. By a carefully crafted design, we increased the depth and width of the network while keeping the computational budget constant. To optimize quality, the architectural decisions were based on the Hebbian principle and the intuition of multi-scale processing. One particular incarnation used in our submission for ILSVRC14 is called GoogLeNet, a 22 layers deep network, the quality of which is assessed in the context of classification and detection.

40,257 citations

Book
18 Nov 2016
TL;DR: Deep learning as mentioned in this paper is a form of machine learning that enables computers to learn from experience and understand the world in terms of a hierarchy of concepts, and it is used in many applications such as natural language processing, speech recognition, computer vision, online recommendation systems, bioinformatics, and videogames.
Abstract: Deep learning is a form of machine learning that enables computers to learn from experience and understand the world in terms of a hierarchy of concepts. Because the computer gathers knowledge from experience, there is no need for a human computer operator to formally specify all the knowledge that the computer needs. The hierarchy of concepts allows the computer to learn complicated concepts by building them out of simpler ones; a graph of these hierarchies would be many layers deep. This book introduces a broad range of topics in deep learning. The text offers mathematical and conceptual background, covering relevant concepts in linear algebra, probability theory and information theory, numerical computation, and machine learning. It describes deep learning techniques used by practitioners in industry, including deep feedforward networks, regularization, optimization algorithms, convolutional networks, sequence modeling, and practical methodology; and it surveys such applications as natural language processing, speech recognition, computer vision, online recommendation systems, bioinformatics, and videogames. Finally, the book offers research perspectives, covering such theoretical topics as linear factor models, autoencoders, representation learning, structured probabilistic models, Monte Carlo methods, the partition function, approximate inference, and deep generative models. Deep Learning can be used by undergraduate or graduate students planning careers in either industry or research, and by software engineers who want to begin using deep learning in their products or platforms. A website offers supplementary material for both readers and instructors.

38,208 citations

Book
01 Jan 1988
TL;DR: This book provides a clear and simple account of the key ideas and algorithms of reinforcement learning, which ranges from the history of the field's intellectual foundations to the most recent developments and applications.
Abstract: Reinforcement learning, one of the most active research areas in artificial intelligence, is a computational approach to learning whereby an agent tries to maximize the total amount of reward it receives when interacting with a complex, uncertain environment. In Reinforcement Learning, Richard Sutton and Andrew Barto provide a clear and simple account of the key ideas and algorithms of reinforcement learning. Their discussion ranges from the history of the field's intellectual foundations to the most recent developments and applications. The only necessary mathematical background is familiarity with elementary concepts of probability. The book is divided into three parts. Part I defines the reinforcement learning problem in terms of Markov decision processes. Part II provides basic solution methods: dynamic programming, Monte Carlo methods, and temporal-difference learning. Part III presents a unified view of the solution methods and incorporates artificial neural networks, eligibility traces, and planning; the two final chapters present case studies and consider the future of reinforcement learning.

37,989 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work proposes a generative model for text and other collections of discrete data that generalizes or improves on several previous models including naive Bayes/unigram, mixture of unigrams, and Hofmann's aspect model.
Abstract: We describe latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA), a generative probabilistic model for collections of discrete data such as text corpora. LDA is a three-level hierarchical Bayesian model, in which each item of a collection is modeled as a finite mixture over an underlying set of topics. Each topic is, in turn, modeled as an infinite mixture over an underlying set of topic probabilities. In the context of text modeling, the topic probabilities provide an explicit representation of a document. We present efficient approximate inference techniques based on variational methods and an EM algorithm for empirical Bayes parameter estimation. We report results in document modeling, text classification, and collaborative filtering, comparing to a mixture of unigrams model and the probabilistic LSI model.

30,570 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: A new technique called t-SNE that visualizes high-dimensional data by giving each datapoint a location in a two or three-dimensional map, a variation of Stochastic Neighbor Embedding that is much easier to optimize, and produces significantly better visualizations by reducing the tendency to crowd points together in the center of the map.
Abstract: We present a new technique called “t-SNE” that visualizes high-dimensional data by giving each datapoint a location in a two or three-dimensional map. The technique is a variation of Stochastic Neighbor Embedding (Hinton and Roweis, 2002) that is much easier to optimize, and produces significantly better visualizations by reducing the tendency to crowd points together in the center of the map. t-SNE is better than existing techniques at creating a single map that reveals structure at many different scales. This is particularly important for high-dimensional data that lie on several different, but related, low-dimensional manifolds, such as images of objects from multiple classes seen from multiple viewpoints. For visualizing the structure of very large datasets, we show how t-SNE can use random walks on neighborhood graphs to allow the implicit structure of all of the data to influence the way in which a subset of the data is displayed. We illustrate the performance of t-SNE on a wide variety of datasets and compare it with many other non-parametric visualization techniques, including Sammon mapping, Isomap, and Locally Linear Embedding. The visualizations produced by t-SNE are significantly better than those produced by the other techniques on almost all of the datasets.

30,124 citations