Bio: Toshio Murashige is an academic researcher from University of Wisconsin-Madison. The author has contributed to research in topics: Meristem initiation & Callus formation. The author has an hindex of 1, co-authored 1 publications receiving 60055 citations.
TL;DR: In vivo redox biosensing resolves the spatiotemporal dynamics of compartmental responses to local ROS generation and provide a basis for understanding how compartment-specific redox dynamics may operate in retrograde signaling and stress 67 acclimation in plants.
Abstract: In experiments with tobacco tissue cultured on White's modified medium (basal meditmi hi Tnhles 1 and 2) supplemenk'd with kiticthi and hidoleacctic acid, a slrikin^' fourlo (ive-told intTease iu yield was ohtaitu-d within a three to Tour week j^rowth period on addition of an aqtteotis exlrarl of tobacco leaves (Fi^'ures 1 and 2). Subse(iueutly it was found Ihiit this jnoniotiou oi' f^rowih was due mainly though nol entirely to inorj^auic rather than organic con.stitttenls in the extract. In the isolation of Rrowth factors from plant tissues and other sources inorj '̂anic salts are fre(|uently carried along with fhe organic fraclioits. When tissue cultures are used for bioassays, therefore, il is necessary lo lake into account increases in growth which may result from nutrient elements or other known constituents of the medium which may he present in the te.st materials. To minimize interference trom rontaminaitis of this type, an altempt has heen made to de\\eh)p a nieditmi with such adequate supplies of all re(iuired tnineral nutrients and cotntnott orgattic cottslitueitls that no apprecial»le change in growth rate or yield will result from the inlroduclion of additional amounts in the range ordinarily expected to be present in tnaterials to be assayed. As a point of referetice for this work some of the culture media in mc)st common current use will he cotisidered briefly. For ease of comparis4)n Iheir mineral compositions are listed in Tables 1 and 2. White's nutrient .solution, designed originally for excised root cultures, was based on Uspeuski and Uspetiskaia's medium for algae and Trelease and Trelease's micronutrieni solution. This medium also was employed successfully in the original cttltivation of callus from the tobacco Iiybrid Nicotiana gtauca x A', tanijadorffii, atitl as further modified by White in 194̂ ^ and by others it has been used for the
TL;DR: A large number of morphologically normal, fertile, transgenic rice plants were obtained by co-cultivation of rice tissues with Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and sequence analysis revealed that the boundaries of the T-DNA in transgenic Rice plants were essentially identical to those intransgenic dicotyledons.
Abstract: Summary A large number of morphologically normal, fertile, transgenic rice plants were obtained by co-cultivation of rice tissues with Agrobacterium tumefaciens The efficiency of transformation was similar to that obtained by the methods used routinely for transformation of dicotyledons with the bacterium Stable integration, expression and inheritance of transgenes were demonstrated by molecular and genetic analysis of transformants in the R0, R1 and R2 generations Sequence analysis revealed that the boundaries of the T-DNA in transgenic rice plants were essentially identical to those in transgenic dicotyledons Calli induced from scutella were very good starting materials A strain of A tumefaciens that carried a so-called ‘super-binary’ vector gave especially high frequencies of transformation of various cultivars of japonica rice that included Koshihikari, which normally shows poor responses in tissue culture
TL;DR: Somatic reversion of plants with white flowers to phenotypically parental violet flowers was associated with a coordinate rise in the steady-state levels of the mRNAs produced by both the endogenous and the introduced CHS genes, indicating that expression of the introduced chalcone synthase gene was not alone sufficient for suppression of endogenous CHS transcript levels.
Abstract: We attempted to overexpress chalcone synthase (CHS) in pigmented petunia petals by introducing a chimeric petunia CHS gene. Unexpectedly, the introduced gene created a block in anthocyanin biosynthesis. Forty-two percent of plants with the introduced CHS gene produced totally white flowers and/or patterned flowers with white or pale nonclonal sectors on a wild-type pigmented background; none of hundreds of transgenic control plants exhibited such phenotypes. Progeny testing of one plant demonstrated that the novel color phenotype co-segregated with the introduced CHS gene; progeny without this gene were phenotypically wild type. The somatic and germinal stability of the novel color patterns was variable. RNase protection analysis of petal RNAs isolated from white flowers showed that, although the developmental timing of mRNA expression of the endogenous CHS gene was not altered, the level of the mRNA produced by this gene was reduced 50-fold from wild-type levels. Somatic reversion of plants with white flowers to phenotypically parental violet flowers was associated with a coordinate rise in the steady-state levels of the mRNAs produced by both the endogenous and the introduced CHS genes. Thus, in the altered white flowers, the expression of both genes was coordinately suppressed, indicating that expression of the introduced CHS gene was not alone sufficient for suppression of endogenous CHS transcript levels. The mechanism responsible for the reversible co-suppression of homologous genes in trans is unclear, but the erratic and reversible nature of this phenomenon suggests the possible involvement of methylation.
TL;DR: It is reported here that H2O2 from this oxidative burst not only drives the cross-linking of cell wall structural proteins, but also functions as a local trigger of programmed death in challenged cells and as a diffusible signal for the induction in adjacent cells of genes encoding cellular protectants.
Abstract: Microbial elicitors or attempted infection with an avirulent pathogen strain causes the rapid production of reactive oxygen intermediates. We report here that H2O2 from this oxidative burst not only drives the cross-linking of cell wall structural proteins, but also functions as a local trigger of programmed death in challenged cells and as a diffusible signal for the induction in adjacent cells of genes encoding cellular protectants such as glutathione S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase. Thus, H2O2 from the oxidative burst plays a key role in the orchestration of a localized hypersensitive response during the expression of plant disease resistance.
TL;DR: Hundreds of Arabidopsis genes were found that outperform traditional reference genes in terms of expression stability throughout development and under a range of environmental conditions, and the developed PCR primers or hybridization probes for the novel reference genes will enable better normalization and quantification of transcript levels inArabidopsis in the future.
Abstract: Gene transcripts with invariant abundance during development and in the face of environmental stimuli are essential reference points for accurate gene expression analyses, such as RNA gel-blot analysis or quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). An exceptionally large set of data from Affymetrix ATH1 whole-genome GeneChip studies provided the means to identify a new generation of reference genes with very stable expression levels in the model plant species Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Hundreds of Arabidopsis genes were found that outperform traditional reference genes in terms of expression stability throughout development and under a range of environmental conditions. Most of these were expressed at much lower levels than traditional reference genes, making them very suitable for normalization of gene expression over a wide range of transcript levels. Specific and efficient primers were developed for 22 genes and tested on a diverse set of 20 cDNA samples. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR confirmed superior expression stability and lower absolute expression levels for many of these genes, including genes encoding a protein phosphatase 2A subunit, a coatomer subunit, and an ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. The developed PCR primers or hybridization probes for the novel reference genes will enable better normalization and quantification of transcript levels in Arabidopsis in the future.