Other affiliations: California State University, Fullerton
Bio: Touraj Daryaee is an academic researcher from University of California, Irvine. The author has contributed to research in topics: Empire & Zoroastrianism. The author has an hindex of 10, co-authored 32 publications receiving 555 citations. Previous affiliations of Touraj Daryaee include California State University, Fullerton.
TL;DR: The importance of the province of Fars/Persis and the Persian Gulf as an important entrepot was discussed in this article, where it was shown that because of the Perso-Byzantine rivalry the amount of trade on the Silk Road was reduced and consequently the amount via the Persian gulf was increased by the fifth and sixth centuries C.E. The campaign for controlling trade in silk and spices was taken to the seas and Persian colonies were established as far away as Sri Lanka.
Abstract: The following article discusses the importance of the province of Fars/Persis as an important province and the Persian Gulf as an important entrepot. The essay seeks to demonstrate that because of the Perso-Byzantine rivalry the amount of trade on the silk roads was reduced and consequently the amount of sea trade via the Persian Gulf was increased by the fifth and sixth centuries C.E. The campaign for controlling trade in silk and spices was taken to the seas, and Persian colonies were established as far away as Sri Lanka. Administrative seals and Sasanian silver coins also indicated a lively exchange of commodities and the presence of Persians in East Asia.
TL;DR: In this paper, a high-resolution (subdecadal to centennial) multi-proxy reconstruction of aeolian input and changes in palaeohydrological conditions based on a 13000-Yr record from Neor Lake's peripheral peat in NW Iran is presented.
Abstract: We present a high-resolution (sub-decadal to centennial), multi-proxy reconstruction of aeolian input and changes in palaeohydrological conditions based on a 13000 Yr record from Neor Lake's peripheral peat in NW Iran. Variations in relative abundances of refractory (Al, Zr, Ti, and Si), redox sensitive (Fe) and mobile (K and Rb) elements, total organic carbon (TOC), δ 13 C TOC , compound-specific leaf wax hydrogen isotopes (δD), carbon accumulation rates and dust fluxes presented here fill a large gap in the existing terrestrial paleoclimate records from the interior of West Asia. Our results suggest that a transition occurred from dry and dusty conditions during the Younger Dryas (YD) to a relatively wetter period with higher carbon accumulation rates and low aeolian input during the early Holocene (9000–6000 Yr BP). This period was followed by relatively drier and dustier conditions during middle to late Holocene, which is consistent with orbital changes in insolation that affected much of the northern hemisphere. Numerous episodes of high aeolian input spanning a few decades to millennia are prevalent during the middle to late Holocene. Wavelet analysis of variations in Ti abundances as a proxy for aeolian input revealed notable periodicities at 230, 320, and 470 years with significant periodicities centered around 820, 1550, and 3110 years over the last 13000 years. Comparison with palaeoclimate archives from West Asia, the North Atlantic and African lakes point to a teleconnection between North Atlantic climate and the interior of West Asia during the last glacial termination and the Holocene epoch. We further assess the potential role of abrupt climate change on early human societies by comparing our record of palaeoclimate variability with historical, geological and archaeological archives from this region. The terrestrial record from this study confirms previous evidence from marine sediments of the Arabian Sea that suggested climate change influenced the termination of the Akkadian empire. In addition, nearly all observed episodes of enhanced dust deposition during the middle to late Holocene coincided with times of drought, famine, and power transitions across the Iranian Plateau, Mesopotamia and the eastern Mediterranean region. These findings indicate that while socio-economic factors are traditionally considered to shape ancient human societies in this region, the influence of abrupt climate change should not be underestimated.
15 Jan 2009
TL;DR: Sasanians were the last of the ancient Persian dynasties, and the preeminent practitioners of the Zoroastrian religion as mentioned in this paper, and their descendants' attempts for more than a century after their defeat to establish a second state.
Abstract: The Sasanians were the last of the ancient Persian dynasties, and the preeminent practitioners of the Zoroastrian religion. From its foundation by Ardashir I in 224 CE the Sasanian Empire was the dominant force in the region for several centuries until its last king, Yasdegerd III, was defeated by the Muslim Arabs in the 7th century. In this clear and comprehensive new book, Touraj Daryaee provides an unrivalled account of Sasanian Persia. Using new sources, he paints a vivid portrait of the empire's often neglected social history and examines the development of its political and administrative institutions. The author also explores, for the first time in an integrated book on the Sasanians, their descendants' attempts for more than a century after their defeat to establish a second state. "Sasanian Persia" is a unique examination of a period of history that still has great significance for a full understanding of modern Iran.
TL;DR: In this paper, the expansion of l'empire sassanide is seen as a renaissance of l’empire achemenide, and it is shown that the Sassanides prefere se situer dans le lignage de la dynastie Kayānide.
Abstract: L’expansion de l’empire sassanide est souvent vue comme une renaissance de l’empire achemenide. Neanmoins, les inscriptions sassanides ne se placent pas dans le lignage achemenides, ce qui a conduit a penser que ceux-ci avaient ete oublies. L’A. revient sur cette position : plusieurs indices montrent que les Sassanides connaissaient le passe achemenide, mais, placant leur legitimite dans une historiographie religieuse avestique, ils ont prefere se situer dans le lignage de la dynastie Kayānide.
01 Jan 2009
TL;DR: The evidence of the history of the Persian Gulf in the pre-Islamic period is steadily growing as discussed by the authors, which is important because in comparison with the Mediterranean1 and the Black Sea, information on the Gulf is rather meager.
Abstract: The evidence of the history of the Persian Gulf in the pre-Islamic period is steadily growing. This is important because in comparison with the Mediterranean1 and the Black Sea,2 information on the Gulf is rather meager.3 This chapter does not attempt to provide a complete history of events, but rather focuses on the region’s slow cyclical rhythms with a four-hundred-year perspective. The Parthian Empire (247 b.c.e.–224 c.e.), which ruled the Near East in antiquity, had benefited from the Silk Road trade, which was not only land-based but also a sea trading route. The Parthians ruled in what may be called a feudal system, in which the local kingdoms along the Persian Gulf, in both the northern and southern region, were semi-independent. We know, for example, of a king or local ruler named Sanatruq who ruled over Bahrain.4 His name suggests that the ruler was Parthian, so we may surmise that he was installed by the Parthian king of kings. We also come across the title of Arabczrch. The Arabarch was a high official in the Parthian period who appears to have patrolled the desert area where the Arabs lived.5 Thus, the Parthians were certainly aware of the importance of their southern provinces and concerned with their control.
TL;DR: This article showed that European expansion not only transformed the historical trajectory of non-European societies, but also reconstituted the historical accounts of these societies before European intervention, and asserted that anthropology must pay more attention to history.
Abstract: The intention of this work is to show that European expansion not only transformed the historical trajectory of non-European societies but also reconstituted the historical accounts of these societies before European intervention. It asserts that anthropology must pay more attention to history.
TL;DR: The first book of its kind, the authors, provides a richly informative and comprehensive guide to the world of late antiquity with the latest scholarship to the researcher along with great reading pleasure to the browser.
Abstract: The first book of its kind, this richly informative and comprehensive guide to the world of late antiquity offers the latest scholarship to the researcher along with great reading pleasure to the browser. In eleven comprehensive essays and in over 500 encyclopedic entries, an international cast of experts provides essential information and fresh perspectives on the history and culture of an era marked by the rise of two world religions, unprecedented political upheavals that remade the map of the known world, and the creation of art of enduring glory. By extending the commonly accepted chronological and territorial boundaries of the period--to encompass Roman, Byzantine, Sassanian, and early Islamic cultures, from the middle of the third century to the end of the eighth--this guide makes new connections and permits revealing comparisons. Consult the article on \"Angels\" and discover their meaning in Islamic as well as classical and Judeo-Christian traditions. Refer to \"Children,\" \"Concubinage,\" and \"Divorce\" for a fascinating interweaving of information on the family. Read the essay on \"Barbarians and Ethnicity\" and see how a topic as current as the construction of identity played out in earlier times, from the Greeks and Romans to the Turks, Huns, and Saxons. Turn to \"Empire Building\" to learn how the empire of Constantine was supported by architecture and ceremony. Or follow your own path through the broad range of entries on politics, manufacturing and commerce, the arts, philosophy, religion, geography, ethnicity, and domestic life. Each entry introduces readers to another facet of the postclassical world: historic figures and places, institutions, burial customs, food, money, public life, and amusements. A splendid selection of illustrations enhances the portrait. The intriguing era of late antiquity emerges completely and clearly, viewed in a new light, in a guide that will be relished by scholars and general readers alike.
••24 Oct 2019
TL;DR: Beaujard as mentioned in this paper presents an ambitious and comprehensive global history of the Indian Ocean world, from the earliest state formations to 1500 CE, and shows how Asia and Africa dominated the economic and cultural landscape and the flow of ideas in the pre-modern world, leading to a trans-regional division of labor and an Afro-Eurasian world economy.
Abstract: Europe's place in history is re-assessed in this first comprehensive history of the ancient world, centering on the Indian Ocean and its role in pre-modern globalization. Philippe Beaujard presents an ambitious and comprehensive global history of the Indian Ocean world, from the earliest state formations to 1500 CE. Supported by a wealth of empirical data, full color maps, plates, and figures, he shows how Asia and Africa dominated the economic and cultural landscape and the flow of ideas in the pre-modern world. This led to a trans-regional division of labor and an Afro-Eurasian world economy. Beaujard questions the origins of capitalism and hints at how this world-system may evolve in the future. The result is a reorienting of world history, taking the Indian Ocean, rather than Europe, as the point of departure. Volume II provides in-depth coverage of the period from the seventh century CE to the fifteenth century CE.
University of Pisa1, Romanian Academy2, Lund University3, University of Barcelona4, University of Hull5, Sapienza University of Rome6, University of Melbourne7, Uppsala University8, Stockholm University9, National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology10, University of Paris11, University of Warsaw12, University of Montpellier13, Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński University in Warsaw14, Leipzig University15
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors reviewed the evidence from selected proxies (sea-surface temperature, precipitation, and temperature reconstructed from pollen, δ18O on SPECTEES, and δ 18O on lacustrine carbonate) over the Mediterranean Basin to infer possible regional climate patterns during the period between 4.3 and 3.8
Abstract: . The Mediterranean region and the Levant have returned some of the clearest evidence of a climatically dry period occurring around 4200 years ago. However, some regional evidence is controversial and contradictory, and issues remain regarding timing, progression, and regional articulation of this event. In this paper, we review the evidence from selected proxies (sea-surface temperature, precipitation, and temperature reconstructed from pollen, δ18O on speleothems, and δ18O on lacustrine carbonate) over the Mediterranean Basin to infer possible regional climate patterns during the interval between 4.3 and 3.8 ka. The values and limitations of these proxies are discussed, and their potential for furnishing information on seasonality is also explored. Despite the chronological uncertainties, which are the main limitations for disentangling details of the climatic conditions, the data suggest that winter over the Mediterranean involved drier conditions, in addition to already dry summers. However, some exceptions to this prevail – where wetter conditions seem to have persisted – suggesting regional heterogeneity in climate patterns. Temperature data, even if sparse, also suggest a cooling anomaly, even if this is not uniform. The most common paradigm to interpret the precipitation regime in the Mediterranean – a North Atlantic Oscillation-like pattern – is not completely satisfactory to interpret the selected data.