Bio: Tua Björklund is an academic researcher from Aalto University. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): New product development & Design thinking. The author has an hindex of 10, co-authored 43 publication(s) receiving 354 citation(s).
01 Mar 2013-Design Studies
TL;DR: This paper explored the differences in the initial mental representations of real-life product development problems between advanced product development engineering students and recommended, professional experts and found that expert mental representations demonstrate superior extent, depth and level of detail, accommodating more interconnections and being more geared toward action.
Abstract: Defining and structuring wicked design problems has a major influence on subsequent problem solving, and demands a considerable level of skill. Previous research on mental representations in design is scarce, and has been largely based on students or individual experts. This study explored the differences in the initial mental representations of real-life product development problems between advanced product development engineering students and recommended, professional experts. Expert mental representations were found to demonstrate superior extent, depth and level of detail, accommodating more interconnections and being more geared toward action. The results indicate that targeting relevancy perceptions to locate interconnections and promote proactivity can be a key factor in developing product development education to better match the requirements faced by professionals.
TL;DR: In this article, a qualitative analysis of the extreme case of Aalto Entrepreneurship Society (Aaltoes), a newly founded organization successfully promoting entrepreneurship within a university merger with virtually no resources, based on interviews of six key contributors and four stakeholder organizations, is presented.
Abstract: Purpose The emerging perspectives of entrepreneurial ecosystems, bricolage and effectuation highlight the interaction between the entrepreneur and the surrounding community, and its potential for creative resource acquisition and utilization. However, empirical work on how this process actually unfolds remains scarce. This paper aims to study the interaction between the opportunity construction process and the development of resources in the surrounding ecosystem. Design/methodology/approach This paper is a qualitative analysis of the extreme case of Aalto Entrepreneurship Society (Aaltoes), a newly founded organization successfully promoting entrepreneurship within a university merger with virtually no resources, based on interviews of six key contributors and four stakeholder organizations. Findings The opportunity construction process both supported and was supported by two key resource generating mechanisms. Formulating and opportunistically reformulating the agenda for increasing potential synergy laid the groundwork for mutual benefit. Proactive concretization enhanced both initial resource allocation and sustaining input to the process through offering tangible instances of specific opportunities and feedback. Research limitations/implications Although based on a single case study in a university setting, proactive concretization emerges as a promising direction for further investigations of the benefits and dynamics of entrepreneur–ecosystem interaction in the opportunity construction process. Practical implications Intentionally creating beneficial entrepreneur–ecosystem interaction and teaching proactive concretization becomes a key goal for educators of entrepreneurship. Originality/value The paper extends an understanding of creative resource generation and utilization in the opportunity construction process. The role of proactive concretization was emphasized in the interaction of the entrepreneur and the ecosystem, creating virtuous spirals of entrepreneurial activity.
01 Jan 2009
TL;DR: In this paper, the effects of time constraints on design idea generation have been investigated and the main findings are that time decomposition can increase ideation productivity, and while time pressure usually increases productivity, creativity can be compromised by both scarcity and abundance of time.
Abstract: It is generally believed that time pressure can hamper creative work. For design researchers, this belief is only one of the many time related claims that are short of scientific basis. During previous years, design research has witnessed the birth of design idea generation research. This has lead to a range of systematic, psychologically-motivated studies that have identified principles behind a successful, efficient idea generation process. With this regard, it is surprising the effects of time constraints have not been thoroughly investigated so far. In this review we seek to clarify the temporal dimension. We introduce three categories for time related effects: duration of a task, time decomposition of a task, and time pressure. For each category we review studies regarding its effect on idea generation. The main discoveries are that time decomposition can increase ideation productivity, and while time pressure usually increases productivity, creativity can be compromised by both scarcity and abundance of time. We conclude by arguing that the controlled application of these time constraints can increase productivity and creativity within design idea generation.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors explore critical success factors in knowledge-intensive creative project work, using product development as an example field, and find that most challenges are embedded in the context of the product development projects.
Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore critical success factors in knowledge‐intensive creative project work, using product development as an example field.Design/methodology/approach – Critical‐incident based in‐depth interviews of 11 product development experts (chosen based on their recommendations and length of experience) were carried out. The results were categorized into thematic classes of critical factors.Findings – Most challenges are embedded in the context of the product development projects. Collaboration and cognitive‐motivational factors such as trust, attitude, and intrinsic motivation‐related issues formed the most common classes of discovered critical factors behind product development project success, along with the mediating categories of goal and autonomy‐related factors. Furthermore, product development specific skills or knowledge accounted only for a small minority of the identified factors.Practical implications – The most pressing learning objective becomes not updatin...
09 Jul 2011
TL;DR: An experimental, quantitative methodology from the domain of product design research for evaluating different idea generation methods is described and prominent results from relevant literature and new data from a study of idea generation in the wild are presented.
Abstract: New ideas are the primary building blocks in attempts to produce novel interactive technology. Numerous idea generation methods such as Brainstorming have been introduced to support this process, but there is mixed evidence regarding their effectiveness. In this paper we describe an experimental, quantitative methodology from the domain of product design research for evaluating different idea generation methods. We present prominent results from relevant literature and new data from a study of idea generation in the wild. The study focused on the effects of the physical environment, or in other words, the physical context, on designers' capacity to produce ideas. 25 students working in small groups took part in an experiment with two design tasks. Moving from an office environment to the actual surroundings of the intended use, we discovered that the change in resulting ideas was surprisingly small. Of the measured dimensions, the real-world context influenced only the feasibility of ideas, leaving quantity, novelty, utility and level of detail unaffected. This finding questions the value of diving into the context as a design idea generation practice.
01 Jan 1995
TL;DR: In this article, Nonaka and Takeuchi argue that Japanese firms are successful precisely because they are innovative, because they create new knowledge and use it to produce successful products and technologies, and they reveal how Japanese companies translate tacit to explicit knowledge.
Abstract: How has Japan become a major economic power, a world leader in the automotive and electronics industries? What is the secret of their success? The consensus has been that, though the Japanese are not particularly innovative, they are exceptionally skilful at imitation, at improving products that already exist. But now two leading Japanese business experts, Ikujiro Nonaka and Hiro Takeuchi, turn this conventional wisdom on its head: Japanese firms are successful, they contend, precisely because they are innovative, because they create new knowledge and use it to produce successful products and technologies. Examining case studies drawn from such firms as Honda, Canon, Matsushita, NEC, 3M, GE, and the U.S. Marines, this book reveals how Japanese companies translate tacit to explicit knowledge and use it to produce new processes, products, and services.
01 Jan 1985
TL;DR: Holquist as mentioned in this paper discusses the history of realism and the role of the Bildungsroman in the development of the novel in Linguistics, philosophy, and the human sciences.
Abstract: Note on Translation Introduction by Michael Holquist Response to a Question from the Novy Mir Editorial Staff The Bildungsroman and Its Significance in the History of Realism (Toward a Historical Typology of the Novel) The Problem of Speech Genres The Problem of the Text in Linguistics, Philology, and the Human Sciences: An Experiment in Philosophical Analysis From Notes Made in 1970-71 Toward a Methodology for the Human Sciences Index
08 Nov 2014
TL;DR: A knowledge representation schema for design called design prototypes is introduced and described to provide a suitable framework to distinguish routine, innovative, and creative design.
Abstract: A prevalent and pervasive view of designing is that it can be modeled using variables and decisions made about what values should be taken by these variables. The activity of designing is carried out with the expectation that the designed artifact will operate in the natural world and the social world. These worlds impose constraints on the variables and their values; so, design could be described as a goal-oriented, constrained, decision- making activity. However, design distinguish- es itself from other similarly described activities not only by its domain but also by additional necessary features. Designing involves exploration, exploring what variables might be appropriate. The process of explo- ration involves both goal variables and deci- sion variables. In addition, designing involves learning: Part of the exploration activity is learning about emerging features as a design proceeds. Finally, design activity occurs within two contexts: the context within which the designer operates and the context produced by the developing design itself. The designer’s perception of what the context is affects the implication of the context on the design. The context shifts as the designer’s perceptions change. Design activity can be now characterized as a goal-oriented, con- strained, decision-making, exploration, and learning activity that operates within a con- text that depends on the designer’s percep- tion of the context.
22 Jun 1997