Other affiliations: University of California, Berkeley, University System of Taiwan, University of California, Los Angeles ...read more
Bio: Tzyy-Ping Jung is an academic researcher from University of California, San Diego. The author has contributed to research in topics: Electroencephalography & Independent component analysis. The author has an hindex of 68, co-authored 361 publications receiving 28290 citations. Previous affiliations of Tzyy-Ping Jung include University of California, Berkeley & University System of Taiwan.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The results on EEG data collected from normal and autistic subjects show that ICA can effectively detect, separate, and remove contamination from a wide variety of artifactual sources in EEG records with results comparing favorably with those obtained using regression and PCA methods.
Abstract: Eye movements, eye blinks, cardiac signals, muscle noise, and line noise present serious problems for electroencephalographic (EEG) interpretation and analysis when rejecting contaminated EEG segments results in an unacceptable data loss. Many methods have been proposed to remove artifacts from EEG recordings, especially those arising from eye movements and blinks. Often regression in the time or frequency domain is performed on parallel EEG and electrooculographic (EOG) recordings to derive parameters characterizing the appearance and spread of EOG artifacts in the EEG channels. Because EEG and ocular activity mix bidirectionally, regressing out eye artifacts inevitably involves subtracting relevant EEG signals from each record as well. Regression methods become even more problematic when a good regressing channel is not available for each artifact source, as in the case of muscle artifacts. Use of principal component analysis (PCA) has been proposed to remove eye artifacts from multichannel EEG. However, PCA cannot completely separate eye artifacts from brain signals, especially when they have comparable amplitudes. Here, we propose a new and generally applicable method for removing a wide variety of artifacts from EEG records based on blind source separation by independent component analysis (ICA). Our results on EEG data collected from normal and autistic subjects show that ICA can effectively detect, separate, and remove contamination from a wide variety of artifactual sources in EEG records with results comparing favorably with those obtained using regression and PCA methods. ICA can also be used to analyze blink-related brain activity.
TL;DR: This work decomposed eight fMRI data sets from 4 normal subjects performing Stroop color‐naming, the Brown and Peterson word/number task, and control tasks into spatially independent components, and found the ICA algorithm was superior to principal component analysis (PCA) in determining the spatial and temporal extent of task‐related activation.
Abstract: r r Abstract: Current analytical techniques applied to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data require a priori knowledge or specific assumptions about the time courses of processes contributing to the measured signals. Here we describe a new method for analyzing fMRI data based on the independent component analysis (ICA) algorithm of Bell and Sejnowski ((1995): Neural Comput 7:1129-1159). We decomposed eight fMRI data sets from 4 normal subjects performing Stroop color-naming, the Brown and Peterson word/number task, and control tasks into spatially independent components. Each component consisted of voxel values at fixed three-dimensional locations (a component ''map''), and a unique associated time course of activation. Given data from 144 time points collected during a 6-min trial, ICA extracted an equal number of spatially independent components. In all eight trials, ICA derived one and only one component with a time course closely matching the time course of 40-sec alternations between experimental and control tasks. The regions of maximum activity in these consistently task-related components generally overlapped active regions detected by standard correlational analysis, but included frontal regions not detected by correlation. Time courses of other ICA components were transiently task-related, quasiperiodic, or slowly varying. By utilizing higher-order statistics to enforce successively stricter criteria for spatial independence between component maps, both the ICA algorithm and a related fourth-order decomposition technique (Comon (1994): Signal Processing 36:11-20) were superior to principal component analysis (PCA) in determining the spatial and temporal extent of task-related activation. For each subject, the time courses and active regions of the task-related ICA components were consistent across trials and were robust to the addition of simulated noise. Simulated movement artifact and simulated task-related activations added to actual fMRI data were clearly separated by the algorithm. ICA can be used to distinguish between nontask-related signal components, movements, and other artifacts, as well as consistently or transiently task-related fMRI activations, based on only weak
27 Nov 1995
TL;DR: First results of applying the ICA algorithm to EEG and event-related potential (ERP) data collected during a sustained auditory detection task show that ICA training is insensitive to different random seeds and ICA may be used to segregate obvious artifactual EEG components from other sources.
Abstract: Because of the distance between the skull and brain and their different resistivities, electroencephalographic (EEG) data collected from any point on the human scalp includes activity generated within a large brain area. This spatial smearing of EEG data by volume conduction does not involve significant time delays, however, suggesting that the Independent Component Analysis (ICA) algorithm of Bell and Sejnowski  is suitable for performing blind source separation on EEG data. The ICA algorithm separates the problem of source identification from that of source localization. First results of applying the ICA algorithm to EEG and event-related potential (ERP) data collected during a sustained auditory detection task show: (1) ICA training is insensitive to different random seeds. (2) ICA may be used to segregate obvious artifactual EEG components (line and muscle noise, eye movements) from other sources. (3) ICA is capable of isolating overlapping EEG phenomena, including alpha and theta bursts and spatially-separable ERP components, to separate ICA channels. (4) Nonstationarities in EEG and behavioral state can be tracked using ICA via changes in the amount of residual correlation between ICA-filtered output channels.
TL;DR: It is shown that nontarget event-related potentials were mainly generated by partial stimulus-induced phase resetting of multiple electroencephalographic processes in a human visual selective attention task.
Abstract: It has been long debated whether averaged electrical responses recorded from the scalp result from stimulus-evoked brain events or stimulus-induced changes in ongoing brain dynamics. In a human visual selective attention task, we show that nontarget event-related potentials were mainly generated by partial stimulus-induced phase resetting of multiple electroencephalographic processes. Independent component analysis applied to the single-trial data identified at least eight classes of contributing components, including those producing central and lateral posterior alpha, left and right mu, and frontal midline theta rhythms. Scalp topographies of these components were consistent with their generation in compact cortical domains.
TL;DR: Results show that ICA can be used to effectively detect, separate and remove ocular artifacts from even strongly contaminated EEG recordings, and the results compare favorably to those obtained using rejection or regression methods.
Abstract: Objectives: Electrical potentials produced by blinks and eye movements present serious problems for electroencephalographic (EEG) and event-related potential (ERP) data interpretation and analysis, particularly for analysis of data from some clinical populations. Often, all epochs contaminated by large eye artifacts are rejected as unusable, though this may prove unacceptable when blinks and eye movements occur frequently. Methods: Frontal channels are often used as reference signals to regress out eye artifacts, but inevitably portions of relevant EEG signals also appearing in EOG channels are thereby eliminated or mixed into other scalp channels. A generally applicable adaptive method for removing artifacts from EEG records based on blind source separation by independent component analysis (ICA) (Neural Computation 7 (1995) 1129; Neural Computation 10(8) (1998) 2103; Neural Computation 11(2) (1999) 606) overcomes these limitations. Results: Results on EEG data collected from 28 normal controls and 22 clinical subjects performing a visual selective attention task show that ICA can be used to effectively detect, separate and remove ocular artifacts from even strongly contaminated EEG recordings. The results compare favorably to those obtained using rejection or regression methods. Conclusions: The ICA method can preserve ERP contributions from all of the recorded trials and all the recorded data channels, even when none of the single trials are artifact-free. q 2000 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
TL;DR: EELAB as mentioned in this paper is a toolbox and graphic user interface for processing collections of single-trial and/or averaged EEG data of any number of channels, including EEG data, channel and event information importing, data visualization (scrolling, scalp map and dipole model plotting, plus multi-trial ERP-image plots), preprocessing (including artifact rejection, filtering, epoch selection, and averaging), Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and time/frequency decomposition including channel and component cross-coherence supported by bootstrap statistical methods based on data resampling.
Abstract: We have developed a toolbox and graphic user interface, EEGLAB, running under the cross-platform MATLAB environment (The Mathworks, Inc.) for processing collections of single-trial and/or averaged EEG data of any number of channels. Available functions include EEG data, channel and event information importing, data visualization (scrolling, scalp map and dipole model plotting, plus multi-trial ERP-image plots), preprocessing (including artifact rejection, filtering, epoch selection, and averaging), Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and time/frequency decompositions including channel and component cross-coherence supported by bootstrap statistical methods based on data resampling. EEGLAB functions are organized into three layers. Top-layer functions allow users to interact with the data through the graphic interface without needing to use MATLAB syntax. Menu options allow users to tune the behavior of EEGLAB to available memory. Middle-layer functions allow users to customize data processing using command history and interactive 'pop' functions. Experienced MATLAB users can use EEGLAB data structures and stand-alone signal processing functions to write custom and/or batch analysis scripts. Extensive function help and tutorial information are included. A 'plug-in' facility allows easy incorporation of new EEG modules into the main menu. EEGLAB is freely available (http://www.sccn.ucsd.edu/eeglab/) under the GNU public license for noncommercial use and open source development, together with sample data, user tutorial and extensive documentation.
TL;DR: The basic theory and applications of ICA are presented, and the goal is to find a linear representation of non-Gaussian data so that the components are statistically independent, or as independent as possible.
Abstract: A fundamental problem in neural network research, as well as in many other disciplines, is finding a suitable representation of multivariate data, i.e. random vectors. For reasons of computational and conceptual simplicity, the representation is often sought as a linear transformation of the original data. In other words, each component of the representation is a linear combination of the original variables. Well-known linear transformation methods include principal component analysis, factor analysis, and projection pursuit. Independent component analysis (ICA) is a recently developed method in which the goal is to find a linear representation of non-Gaussian data so that the components are statistically independent, or as independent as possible. Such a representation seems to capture the essential structure of the data in many applications, including feature extraction and signal separation. In this paper, we present the basic theory and applications of ICA, and our recent work on the subject.
TL;DR: With adequate recognition and effective engagement of all issues, BCI systems could eventually provide an important new communication and control option for those with motor disabilities and might also give those without disabilities a supplementary control channel or a control channel useful in special circumstances.
Abstract: For many years people have speculated that electroencephalographic activity or other electrophysiological measures of brain function might provide a new non-muscular channel for sending messages and commands to the external world - a brain-computer interface (BCI). Over the past 15 years, productive BCI research programs have arisen. Encouraged by new understanding of brain function, by the advent of powerful low-cost computer equipment, and by growing recognition of the needs and potentials of people with disabilities, these programs concentrate on developing new augmentative communication and control technology for those with severe neuromuscular disorders, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, brainstem stroke, and spinal cord injury. The immediate goal is to provide these users, who may be completely paralyzed, or 'locked in', with basic communication capabilities so that they can express their wishes to caregivers or even operate word processing programs or neuroprostheses. Present-day BCIs determine the intent of the user from a variety of different electrophysiological signals. These signals include slow cortical potentials, P300 potentials, and mu or beta rhythms recorded from the scalp, and cortical neuronal activity recorded by implanted electrodes. They are translated in real-time into commands that operate a computer display or other device. Successful operation requires that the user encode commands in these signals and that the BCI derive the commands from the signals. Thus, the user and the BCI system need to adapt to each other both initially and continually so as to ensure stable performance. Current BCIs have maximum information transfer rates up to 10-25bits/min. This limited capacity can be valuable for people whose severe disabilities prevent them from using conventional augmentative communication methods. At the same time, many possible applications of BCI technology, such as neuroprosthesis control, may require higher information transfer rates. Future progress will depend on: recognition that BCI research and development is an interdisciplinary problem, involving neurobiology, psychology, engineering, mathematics, and computer science; identification of those signals, whether evoked potentials, spontaneous rhythms, or neuronal firing rates, that users are best able to control independent of activity in conventional motor output pathways; development of training methods for helping users to gain and maintain that control; delineation of the best algorithms for translating these signals into device commands; attention to the identification and elimination of artifacts such as electromyographic and electro-oculographic activity; adoption of precise and objective procedures for evaluating BCI performance; recognition of the need for long-term as well as short-term assessment of BCI performance; identification of appropriate BCI applications and appropriate matching of applications and users; and attention to factors that affect user acceptance of augmentative technology, including ease of use, cosmesis, and provision of those communication and control capacities that are most important to the user. Development of BCI technology will also benefit from greater emphasis on peer-reviewed research publications and avoidance of the hyperbolic and often misleading media attention that tends to generate unrealistic expectations in the public and skepticism in other researchers. With adequate recognition and effective engagement of all these issues, BCI systems could eventually provide an important new communication and control option for those with motor disabilities and might also give those without disabilities a supplementary control channel or a control channel useful in special circumstances.
TL;DR: The empirical and theoretical development of the P300 event-related brain potential is reviewed by considering factors that contribute to its amplitude, latency, and general characteristics.
Abstract: The empirical and theoretical development of the P300 event-related brain potential (ERP) is reviewed by considering factors that contribute to its amplitude, latency, and general characteristics. The neuropsychological origins of the P3a and P3b subcomponents are detailed, and how target/standard discrimination difficulty modulates scalp topography is discussed. The neural loci of P3a and P3b generation are outlined, and a cognitive model is proffered: P3a originates from stimulus-driven frontal attention mechanisms during task processing, whereas P3b originates from temporal-parietal activity associated with attention and appears related to subsequent memory processing. Neurotransmitter actions associating P3a to frontal/dopaminergic and P3b to parietal/norepinephrine pathways are highlighted. Neuroinhibition is suggested as an overarching theoretical mechanism for P300, which is elicited when stimulus detection engages memory operations.
TL;DR: Two distinct networks typically coactivated during functional MRI tasks are identified, anchored by dorsal anterior cingulate and orbital frontoinsular cortices with robust connectivity to subcortical and limbic structures, and an “executive-control network” that links dorsolateral frontal and parietal neocortices.
Abstract: Variations in neural circuitry, inherited or acquired, may underlie important individual differences in thought, feeling, and action patterns. Here, we used task-free connectivity analyses to isolate and characterize two distinct networks typically coactivated during functional MRI tasks. We identified a "salience network," anchored by dorsal anterior cingulate (dACC) and orbital frontoinsular cortices with robust connectivity to subcortical and limbic structures, and an "executive-control network" that links dorsolateral frontal and parietal neocortices. These intrinsic connectivity networks showed dissociable correlations with functions measured outside the scanner. Prescan anxiety ratings correlated with intrinsic functional connectivity of the dACC node of the salience network, but with no region in the executive-control network, whereas executive task performance correlated with lateral parietal nodes of the executive-control network, but with no region in the salience network. Our findings suggest that task-free analysis of intrinsic connectivity networks may help elucidate the neural architectures that support fundamental aspects of human behavior.