Udo M. Savalli
Other affiliations: Fordham University
Bio: Udo M. Savalli is an academic researcher from University of California, Berkeley. The author has contributed to research in topics: Sexual selection & Euplectes. The author has an hindex of 12, co-authored 19 publications receiving 842 citations. Previous affiliations of Udo M. Savalli include Fordham University.
TL;DR: The effect of male mating history on male ejaculate size, female fecundity, female longevity and female remating behaviour in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus was determined.
Abstract: 1. In many organisms, males provide nutrients to females via ejaculates that can influence female fecundity, longevity and mating behaviour. The effect of male mating history on male ejaculate size, female fecundity, female longevity and female remating behaviour in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus was determined. 2. The quantity of ejaculate passed to females declined dramatically with successive matings. Despite the decline, a male’s ability to fertilize a female fully did not appear to decline substantially until his fourth mating. 3. When females multiply mated with males of a particular mated status, the pattern of egg production was cyclic, with egg production increasing after mating. Females multiply mated to virgins had higher fecundity than females mated to non-virgins, and females mated to twice-mated males had disproportionately increased egg production late in their life. 4. Females that mated to multiple virgins, and consequently laid more eggs, experienced greater mortality than females mated only once or mated to non-virgins, suggesting that egg production is costly, and rather than ameliorating these costs, male ejaculates may increase them by allowing or stimulating females to lay more eggs. 5. Females mating with non-virgin males remated more readily than did females mated to virgins. Females given food supplements were less likely to remate than females that were nutritionally stressed, suggesting that females remate in part to obtain additional nutrients.
TL;DR: Sexual selection on male body size in a laboratory population of the seed beetle, Stator limbatus, and the fitness consequences to females of mating with larger males are examined, indicating that males make substantial contributions to female fecundity, probably through nutrients transferred in their ejaculate.
Abstract: We examined sexual selection on male body size in a laboratory population of the seed beetle,Stator limbatus, and the fitness consequences to females of mating with larger males. Large males produced larger ejaculates than small males. Both males and females lost body weight as a consequence of breeding, and large males lost more weight than small males. The amount of weight lost by males correlated as highly with female fecundity as did the amount of weight lost by females. Similarly, male and female body weight correlated equally highly with female fecundity. These results indicate that males make substantial contributions to female fecundity, probably through nutrients transferred in their ejaculate. As a consequence, fecundity selection should favour large body size in both males and females. We found no preference for large males when virgin females were presented with only one male, but when presented with two males simultaneously, females were more likely to mate with the larger male. This result is consistent with relative female choice or male–male competition, although no indications of male–male competition were observed. Females that mated with small males re-mated sooner than females that first mated with large males. Females that first mated with a non-virgin male were also more likely to re-mate than females that first mated with a virgin male, suggesting that females re-mate to obtain additional sperm or nutrients and not just as a form of mate choice. In addition to the possible benefits from mate choice and male–male competition, large males gain a mating advantage through reduced sperm competition. This large male advantage, combined with fecundity selection on males as well as females, may account for males being larger than females in this species.
••01 Jan 1995
TL;DR: Both color and ornaments are treated in this review of the evolution of plumage of birds, rivaling butterflies and tropical reef fishes.
Abstract: Although physically homogeneous, birds come in a wide variety of colors, rivaling butterflies and tropical reef fishes. Such variation invites attention and many hypotheses have been developed to explain the evolution of avian color and pattern. In addition, plumage of birds have structural elaborations that go beyond its insulative and aerodynamic properties including various kinds of ruffs, elongated tails (retrices or coverts), crests, and plumes which I refer to collectively as “ornaments.” Since many hypotheses for the evolution of color and pattern (especially conspicuous colors and patterns) involve communicative functions that apply also to the evolution of ornaments, I treat both color and ornaments in this review.
TL;DR: Large males had a mating advantage relative to small males, both when a single male was presented to a female and when two males were present, but this did not appear to be due to females rejecting male courtship attempts, but instead may have been due to male-male competition.
Abstract: We use laboratory mating experiments to examine the effect of male size, age, and mating behavior on fecundity selection and sexual selection in the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera Bruchidae), a species in which females are larger than males. Female C. maculatus gain a fitness advantage, in the form of increased lifetime fecundity, from mating with large males (which contribute larger ejaculates), but the partial correlation between male size and fecundity is weaker than the partial correlation between female size and her fecundity. Large males had a mating advantage relative to small males, both when a single male was presented to a female and when two males were present. However, this did not appear to be due to females rejecting male courtship attempts, but instead may be due to male-male competition. When females were mated to two males sequentially, neither the size of the first male nor the size of the second male influenced whether or how quickly a female remated. None of the othe...
TL;DR: The results indicate that male paternal investment can respond to selection, and that it may be able to do so especially rapidly because sex-linked traits have the potential to evolve much more quickly than autosomal traits.
Abstract: Males of many species invest resources in their offspring. For paternal investment to evolve, it must exhibit heritable variation. Using a standard half-sibling quantitative genetic design, we investigated whether genetic variation in male ejaculate size, a trait that affects female fecundity and copulation duration, are present in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. Ejaculate size was estimated as the amount of weight lost by males during mating. Dams, but not sires, had significant effects on their sons’ absolute ejaculate size (both replicates) and relative ejaculate size (proportion of body weight; one replicate only), explaining 21‐25% of the variance in absolute ejaculate size and 8‐16% of the variance in relative ejaculate size. These results suggest either a large maternal effect on ejaculate size or sex-linkage of loci that affect the variation in ejaculate size. The proportion of phenotypic variance explained by sexlinkage (assuming no maternal effects) was 42 and 49% (ejaculate size) and 17 and 31% (relative ejaculate size) in the two replicates. These results indicate that male paternal investment can respond to selection, and that it may be able to do so especially rapidly because sex-linked traits have the potential to evolve much more quickly than autosomal traits. There were only weak negative correlations between ejaculate size and mating duration, contrary to what we predicted. There was additive genetic variation in female copulation duration, but not in male copulation duration, suggesting that copulation duration is under female control. © 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour
TL;DR: For the next few weeks the course is going to be exploring a field that’s actually older than classical population genetics, although the approach it’ll be taking to it involves the use of population genetic machinery.
Abstract: So far in this course we have dealt entirely with the evolution of characters that are controlled by simple Mendelian inheritance at a single locus. There are notes on the course website about gametic disequilibrium and how allele frequencies change at two loci simultaneously, but we didn’t discuss them. In every example we’ve considered we’ve imagined that we could understand something about evolution by examining the evolution of a single gene. That’s the domain of classical population genetics. For the next few weeks we’re going to be exploring a field that’s actually older than classical population genetics, although the approach we’ll be taking to it involves the use of population genetic machinery. If you know a little about the history of evolutionary biology, you may know that after the rediscovery of Mendel’s work in 1900 there was a heated debate between the “biometricians” (e.g., Galton and Pearson) and the “Mendelians” (e.g., de Vries, Correns, Bateson, and Morgan). Biometricians asserted that the really important variation in evolution didn’t follow Mendelian rules. Height, weight, skin color, and similar traits seemed to
31 Jan 1963
TL;DR: It is concluded that post‐copulatory mechanisms provide a more reliable way of selecting a genetically compatible mate than pre-copulatory mate choice and that some of the best evidence for cryptic female choice by sperm selection is due to selection of more compatible sperm.
Abstract: The aim of this review is to consider the potential benefits that females may gain from mating more than once in a single reproductive cycle. The relationship between non-genetic and genetic benefits is briefly explored. We suggest that multiple mating for purely non-genetic benefits is unlikely as it invariably leads to the possibility of genetic benefits as well. We begin by briefly reviewing the main models for genetic benefits to mate choice, and the supporting evidence that choice can increase offspring performance and the sexual attractiveness of sons. We then explain how multiple mating can elevate offspring fitness by increasing the number of potential sires that compete, when this occurs in conjunction with mechanisms of paternity biasing that function in copula or post-copulation. We begin by identifying cases where females use pre-copulatory cues to identify mates prior to remating. In the simplest case, females remate because they identify a superior mate and 'trade up' genetically. The main evidence for this process comes from extra-pair copulation in birds. Second, we note other cases where pre-copulatory cues may be less reliable and females mate with several males to promote post-copulatory mechanisms that bias paternity. Although a distinction is drawn between sperm competition and cryptic female choice, we point out that the genetic benefits to polyandry in terms of producing more viable or sexually attractive offspring do not depend on the exact mechanism that leads to biased paternity. Post-copulatory mechanisms of paternity biasing may: (1) reduce genetic incompatibility between male and female genetic contributions to offspring; (2) increase offspring viability if there is a positive correlation between traits favoured post-copulation and those that improve performance under natural selection; (3) increase the ability of sons to gain paternity when they mate with polyandrous females. A third possibility is that genetic diversity among offspring is directly favoured. This can be due to bet-hedging (due to mate assessment errors or temporal fluctuations in the environment), beneficial interactions between less related siblings or the opportunity to preferentially fertilise eggs with sperm of a specific genotype drawn from a range of stored sperm depending on prevailing environmental conditions. We use case studies from the social insects to provide some concrete examples of the role of genetic diversity among progeny in elevating fitness. We conclude that post-copulatory mechanisms provide a more reliable way of selecting a genetically compatible mate than pre-copulatory mate choice. Some of the best evidence for cryptic female choice by sperm selection is due to selection of more compatible sperm. Two future areas of research seem likely to be profitable. First, more experimental evidence is needed demonstrating that multiple mating increases offspring fitness via genetic gains. Second, the role of multiple mating in promoting assortative fertilization and increasing reproductive isolation between populations may help us to understand sympatric speciation.
TL;DR: Phenotypic responses in species interactions represent modifications that can lead to reciprocal change in ecological time, altered community patterns, and expanded evolutionary potential of species.
Abstract: When individuals of two species interact, they can adjust their phenotypes in response to their respective partner, be they antagonists or mutualists. The reciprocal phenotypic change between individuals of interacting species can reflect an evolutionary response to spatial and temporal variation in species interactions and ecologically result in the structuring of food chains. The evolution of adaptive phenotypic plasticity has led to the success of organisms in novel habitats, and potentially contributes to genetic differentiation and speciation. Taken together, phenotypic responses in species interactions represent modifications that can lead to reciprocal change in ecological time, altered community patterns, and expanded evolutionary potential of species.
TL;DR: A model of adaptive evolution on a macroevolutionary time scale that includes the maintenance of traits at adaptive optima by stabilizing selection as the dominant evolutionary force is presented.
Abstract: Comparative studies tend to differ from optimality and functionality studies in how they treat adaptation. While the comparative approach focuses on the origin and change of traits, optimality studies assume that adaptations are maintained at an optimum by stabilizing selection. This paper presents a model of adaptive evolution on a macroevolutionary time scale that includes the maintenance of traits at adaptive optima by stabilizing selection as the dominant evolutionary force. Interspecific variation is treated as variation in the position of adaptive optima. The model illustrates how phylogenetic constraints not only lead to correlations between phylogenetically related species, but also to imperfect adaptations. From this model, a statistical comparative method is derived that can be used to estimate the effect of a selective factor on adaptive optima in a way that would be consistent with an optimality study of adaptation to this factor. The method is illustrated with an analysis of dental evolution in fossil horses. The use of comparative methods to study evolutionary trends is also discussed.