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Ulrich Gösele

Bio: Ulrich Gösele is an academic researcher from Max Planck Society. The author has contributed to research in topics: Silicon & Wafer. The author has an hindex of 102, co-authored 603 publications receiving 46223 citations. Previous affiliations of Ulrich Gösele include Free University of Berlin & Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg.


Papers
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TL;DR: In this article, it was shown that a two-dimensional quantum confinement (quantum wire) in the very narrow walls between the pores not only explains the change in band gap energy but also may also explain the dissolution mechanism that leads to porous silicon formation.
Abstract: Porous silicon layers grown on nondegenerated p‐type silicon electrodes in hydrofluoric acid electrolytes are translucent for visible light, which is equivalent to an increased band gap compared to bulk silicon. It will be shown that a two‐dimensional quantum confinement (quantum wire) in the very narrow walls between the pores not only explains the change in band‐gap energy but may also be the key to better understanding the dissolution mechanism that leads to porous silicon formation.

1,705 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article presents an overview of the essential aspects in the fabrication of silicon and some silicon/germanium nanostructures by metal-assisted chemical etching, and introduces templates based on nanosphere lithography, anodic aluminum oxide masks, interference lithographic, and block-copolymer masks.
Abstract: This article presents an overview of the essential aspects in the fabrication of silicon and some silicon/germanium nanostructures by metal-assisted chemical etching. First, the basic process and mechanism of metal-assisted chemical etching is introduced. Then, the various influences of the noble metal, the etchant, temperature, illumination, and intrinsic properties of the silicon substrate (e.g., orientation, doping type, doping level) are presented. The anisotropic and the isotropic etching behaviors of silicon under various conditions are presented. Template-based metal-assisted chemical etching methods are introduced, including templates based on nanosphere lithography, anodic aluminum oxide masks, interference lithography, and block-copolymer masks. The metal-assisted chemical etching of other semiconductors is also introduced. A brief introduction to the application of Si nanostructures obtained by metal-assisted chemical etching is given, demonstrating the promising potential applications of metal-assisted chemical etching. Finally, some open questions in the understanding of metal-assisted chemical etching are compiled.

1,689 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, self-organized hexagonal pore arrays with a 50-420 nm interpore distance in anodic alumina have been obtained by anodizing aluminum in oxalic, sulfuric, and phosphoric acid solutions.
Abstract: Self-organized hexagonal pore arrays with a 50–420 nm interpore distance in anodic alumina have been obtained by anodizing aluminum in oxalic, sulfuric, and phosphoric acid solutions. Hexagonally ordered pore arrays with distances as large as 420 nm were obtained under a constant anodic potential in phosphoric acid. By comparison of the ordered pore formation in the three types of electrolyte, it was found that the ordered pore arrays show a polycrystalline structure of a few micrometers in size. The interpore distance increases linearly with anodic potential, and the relationship obtained from disordered porous anodic alumina also fits for periodic pore arrangements. The best ordered periodic arrangements are observed when the volume expansion of the aluminum during oxidation is about 1.4 which is independent of the electrolyte. The formation mechanism of ordered arrays is consistent with a previously proposed mechanical stress model, i.e., the repulsive forces between neighboring pores at the metal/oxide interface promote the formation of hexagonally ordered pores during the oxidation process.

1,496 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the conditions for the self-organized formation of ordered hexagonal structures in anodic alumina were investigated for both oxalic and sulfuric acid as an electrolyte.
Abstract: The conditions for the self-organized formation of ordered hexagonal structures in anodic alumina were investigated for both oxalic and sulfuric acid as an electrolyte. Highly ordered pore arrays were obtained for oxidation in both acids. The size of the ordered domains depends strongly on the anodizing voltage. This effect is correlated with a voltage dependence of the volume expansion of the aluminum during oxidation and the current efficiency for oxide formation. The resulting mechanical stress at the metal/oxide interface is proposed to cause repulsive forces between the neighboring pores which promote the formation of ordered hexagonal pore arrays.

1,334 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A new oxalic-acid-based anodization process for long-range ordered alumina membranes that establishes a new self-ordering regime with interpore distances, (Dint)=200–300 nm, allowing 2,500–3,500% faster oxide growth with improved ordering of the nanopores.
Abstract: Nanoporous anodic aluminium oxide has been widely used for the development of various functional nanostructures. So far these self-organized pore structures could only be prepared within narrow processing conditions. Here we report a new oxalic-acid-based anodization process for long-range ordered alumina membranes. This process is a new generation of the so-called "hard anodization" approach that has been widely used in industry for high-speed fabrication of mechanically robust, very thick (>100 microm) and low-porosity alumina films since the 1960s. This hard anodization approach establishes a new self-ordering regime with interpore distances, (D(int))=200-300 nm, which have not been achieved by mild anodization processes so far. It offers substantial advantages over conventional anodization processes in terms of processing time, allowing 2,500-3,500% faster oxide growth with improved ordering of the nanopores. Perfectly ordered alumina membranes with high aspect ratios (>1,000) of uniform nanopores with periodically modulated diameters have been realized.

1,269 citations


Cited by
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[...]

08 Dec 2001-BMJ
TL;DR: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one, which seems an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality.
Abstract: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one. I remember first hearing about it at school. It seemed an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality. Usually familiarity dulls this sense of the bizarre, but in the case of i it was the reverse: over the years the sense of its surreal nature intensified. It seemed that it was impossible to write mathematics that described the real world in …

33,785 citations

28 Jul 2005
TL;DR: PfPMP1)与感染红细胞、树突状组胞以及胎盘的单个或多个受体作用,在黏附及免疫逃避中起关键的作�ly.
Abstract: 抗原变异可使得多种致病微生物易于逃避宿主免疫应答。表达在感染红细胞表面的恶性疟原虫红细胞表面蛋白1(PfPMP1)与感染红细胞、内皮细胞、树突状细胞以及胎盘的单个或多个受体作用,在黏附及免疫逃避中起关键的作用。每个单倍体基因组var基因家族编码约60种成员,通过启动转录不同的var基因变异体为抗原变异提供了分子基础。

18,940 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
16 Feb 1996-Science
TL;DR: In this article, the authors focus on the properties of quantum dots and their ability to join the dots into complex assemblies creates many opportunities for scientific discovery, such as the ability of joining the dots to complex assemblies.
Abstract: Current research into semiconductor clusters is focused on the properties of quantum dots-fragments of semiconductor consisting of hundreds to many thousands of atoms-with the bulk bonding geometry and with surface states eliminated by enclosure in a material that has a larger band gap. Quantum dots exhibit strongly size-dependent optical and electrical properties. The ability to join the dots into complex assemblies creates many opportunities for scientific discovery.

10,737 citations

Book
15 May 2007
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors discuss the role of surface plasmon polaritons at metal/insulator interfaces and their application in the propagation of surfaceplasmon waveguides.
Abstract: Fundamentals of Plasmonics.- Electromagnetics of Metals.- Surface Plasmon Polaritons at Metal / Insulator Interfaces.- Excitation of Surface Plasmon Polaritons at Planar Interfaces.- Imaging Surface Plasmon Polariton Propagation.- Localized Surface Plasmons.- Electromagnetic Surface Modes at Low Frequencies.- Applications.- Plasmon Waveguides.- Transmission of Radiation Through Apertures and Films.- Enhancement of Emissive Processes and Nonlinearities.- Spectroscopy and Sensing.- Metamaterials and Imaging with Surface Plasmon Polaritons.- Concluding Remarks.

7,238 citations