Author

# Uma Divakaran

Other affiliations: Saarland University, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Center for Excellence in Education

Bio: Uma Divakaran is an academic researcher from Indian Institutes of Technology. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Quantum phase transition & Quantum critical point. The author has an hindex of 15, co-authored 54 publication(s) receiving 883 citation(s). Previous affiliations of Uma Divakaran include Saarland University & Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur.

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01 Jan 2015

TL;DR: The transverse field Ising and XY models (the simplest quantum spin models) provide the organizing principle for the rich variety of interconnected subjects which are covered in this book as mentioned in this paper, including the essentials of quantum dynamics and quantum information.

Abstract: The transverse field Ising and XY models (the simplest quantum spin models) provide the organising principle for the rich variety of interconnected subjects which are covered in this book From a generic introduction to in-depth discussions of the subtleties of the transverse field Ising and related models, it includes the essentials of quantum dynamics and quantum information A wide range of relevant topics has also been provided: quantum phase transitions, various measures of quantum information, the effects of disorder and frustration, quenching dynamics and the Kibble–Zurek scaling relation, the Kitaev model, topological phases of quantum systems, and bosonisation In addition, it also discusses the experimental studies of transverse field models (including the first experimental realisation of quantum annealing) and the recent realisation of the transverse field Ising model using tunable Josephson junctions Further, it points to the obstacles still remaining to develop a successful quantum computer

173 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors studied the quantum dynamics of a one-dimensional spin-$1/2$ anisotropic XY model in a transverse field when the transverse fields or the Anisotropic interaction is quenched at a slow but uniform rate.

Abstract: We study the quantum dynamics of a one-dimensional spin-$1/2$ anisotropic XY model in a transverse field when the transverse field or the anisotropic interaction is quenched at a slow but uniform rate. The two quenching schemes are called transverse and anisotropic quenching, respectively. Our emphasis in this paper is on the anisotropic quenching scheme, and we compare the results with those of the other scheme. In the process of anisotropic quenching, the system crosses all the quantum critical lines of the phase diagram where the relaxation time diverges. The evolution is nonadiabatic in the time interval when the parameters are close to their critical values, and is adiabatic otherwise. The density of defects produced due to nonadiabatic transitions is calculated by mapping the many-particle system to an equivalent Landau-Zener problem and is generally found to vary as $1/\sqrt{\tau}$, where \tau is the characteristic time scale of quenching, a scenario that supports the Kibble-Zurek mechanism. Interestingly, in the case of anisotropic quenching, there exists an additional nonadiabatic transition, in comparison to the transverse quenching case, with the corresponding probability peaking at an incommensurate value of the wave vector. In the special case in which the system passes through a multicritical point, the defect density is found to vary as $1/ \tau^{1/6}$. The von Neumann entropy of the final state is shown to maximize at a quenching rate around which the ordering of the final state changes from antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic.

104 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors studied the slow quenching dynamics of a one-dimensional transverse Ising chain with nearest neighbor ferromagentic interactions across the quantum critical point (QCP) and analyzed the Loschmidt overlap measured using the subsequent temporal evolution of the final wave function with the final time independent Hamiltonian.

Abstract: We study the slow quenching dynamics (characterized by an inverse rate ${\ensuremath{\tau}}^{\ensuremath{-}1}$) of a one-dimensional transverse Ising chain with nearest neighbor ferromagentic interactions across the quantum critical point (QCP) and analyze the Loschmidt overlap measured using the subsequent temporal evolution of the final wave function (reached at the end of the quenching) with the final time-independent Hamiltonian. Studying the Fisher zeros of the corresponding generalized ``partition function,'' we probe nonanalyticities manifested in the rate function of the return probability known as dynamical phase transitions (DPTs). In contrast to the sudden quenching case, we show that DPTs survive in the subsequent temporal evolution following the quenching across two critical points of the model for a sufficiently slow rate; furthermore, an interesting ``lobe'' structure of Fisher zeros emerge. We have also made a connection to topological aspects studying the dynamical topological order parameter $[{\ensuremath{
u}}_{D}(t)]$ as a function of time $(t)$ measured from the instant when the quenching is complete. Remarkably, the time evolution of ${\ensuremath{
u}}_{D}(t)$ exhibits drastically different behavior following quenches across a single QCP and two QCPs. In the former case, ${\ensuremath{
u}}_{D}(t)$ increases stepwise by unity at every DPT (i.e., $\mathrm{\ensuremath{\Delta}}{\ensuremath{
u}}_{D}=1$). In the latter case, on the other hand, ${\ensuremath{
u}}_{D}(t)$ essentially oscillates between 0 and 1 (i.e., successive DPTs occur with $\mathrm{\ensuremath{\Delta}}{\ensuremath{
u}}_{D}=1$ and $\mathrm{\ensuremath{\Delta}}{\ensuremath{
u}}_{D}=\ensuremath{-}1$, respectively), except for instants where it shows a sudden jump by a factor of unity when two successive DPTs carry a topological charge of the same sign.

81 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the defect density in the final state scales as 1/tau1/3, a behavior that has not been observed in previous studies of quenching through a gapless phase.

Abstract: We use a quenching scheme to study the dynamics of a one-dimensional anisotropic XY spin-1/2 chain in the presence of a transverse field which alternates between the values h+delta and h−delta from site to site. In this quenching scheme, the parameter denoting the anisotropy of interaction (gamma) is linearly quenched from −[infinity] to +[infinity] as gamma=t/tau, keeping the total strength of interaction J fixed. The system traverses through a gapless phase when gamma is quenched along the critical surface h2=delta2+J2 in the parameter space spanned by h, delta, and gamma. By mapping to an equivalent two-level Landau-Zener problem, we show that the defect density in the final state scales as 1/tau1/3, a behavior that has not been observed in previous studies of quenching through a gapless phase. We also generalize the model incorporating additional alternations in the anisotropy or in the strength of the interaction and derive an identical result under a similar quenching. Based on the above results, we propose a general scaling of the defect density with the quenching rate tau for quenching along a gapless critical line.

65 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors studied the defect generation when a quantum spin system is quenched through a multicritical point by changing a parameter of the Hamiltonian as t/tau, where tau is the characteristic timescale of quenching.

Abstract: We study the generation of defects when a quantum spin system is quenched through a multicritical point by changing a parameter of the Hamiltonian as t/tau, where tau is the characteristic timescale of quenching. We argue that when a quantum system is quenched across a multicritical point, the density of defects (n) in the final state is not necessarily given by the Kibble-Zurek scaling form n similar to 1/tau(d nu)/((z nu+1)), where d is the spatial dimension, and. and z are respectively the correlation length and dynamical exponent associated with the quantum critical point. We propose a generalized scaling form of the defect density given by n similar to 1/(tau d/(2z2)), where the exponent z(2) determines the behavior of the off-diagonal term of the 2 x 2 Landau-Zener matrix at the multicritical point. This scaling is valid not only at a multicritical point but also at an ordinary critical point.

48 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors give an overview of recent theoretical and experimental progress in the area of nonequilibrium dynamics of isolated quantum systems, particularly focusing on quantum quenches: the temporal evolution following a sudden or slow change of the coupling constants of the system Hamiltonian.

Abstract: This Colloquium gives an overview of recent theoretical and experimental progress in the area of nonequilibrium dynamics of isolated quantum systems There is particularly a focus on quantum quenches: the temporal evolution following a sudden or slow change of the coupling constants of the system Hamiltonian Several aspects of the slow dynamics in driven systems are discussed and the universality of such dynamics in gapless systems with specific focus on dynamics near continuous quantum phase transitions is emphasized Recent progress on understanding thermalization in closed systems through the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis is also reviewed and relaxation in integrable systems is discussed Finally key experiments probing quantum dynamics in cold atom systems are overviewed and put into the context of our current theoretical understanding

1,968 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the role of pertubative renormalization group (RG) approaches and self-consistent renormalized spin fluctuation (SCR-SF) theories to understand the quantum-classical crossover in the vicinity of the quantum critical point with generalization to the Kondo effect in heavy-fermion systems is discussed.

Abstract: We give a general introduction to quantum phase transitions in strongly-correlated electron systems. These transitions which occur at zero temperature when a non-thermal parameter $g$ like pressure, chemical composition or magnetic field is tuned to a critical value are characterized by a dynamic exponent $z$ related to the energy and length scales $\Delta$ and $\xi$. Simple arguments based on an expansion to first order in the effective interaction allow to define an upper-critical dimension $D_{C}=4$ (where $D=d+z$ and $d$ is the spatial dimension) below which mean-field description is no longer valid. We emphasize the role of pertubative renormalization group (RG) approaches and self-consistent renormalized spin fluctuation (SCR-SF) theories to understand the quantum-classical crossover in the vicinity of the quantum critical point with generalization to the Kondo effect in heavy-fermion systems. Finally we quote some recent inelastic neutron scattering experiments performed on heavy-fermions which lead to unusual scaling law in $\omega /T$ for the dynamical spin susceptibility revealing critical local modes beyond the itinerant magnetism scheme and mention new attempts to describe this local quantum critical point.

1,347 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors show that a homogeneous 1D Bose gas with point-like collisional interactions is integrable, and that it is possible to construct a system with many degrees of freedom that does not reach thermal equilibrium even after thousands of collisions.

Abstract: It is a fundamental assumption of statistical mechanics that a closed system with many degrees of freedom ergodically samples all equal energy points in phase space. To understand the limits of this assumption, it is important to find and study systems that are not ergodic, and thus do not reach thermal equilibrium. A few complex systems have been proposed that are expected not to thermalize because their dynamics are integrable. Some nearly integrable systems of many particles have been studied numerically, and shown not to ergodically sample phase space. However, there has been no experimental demonstration of such a system with many degrees of freedom that does not approach thermal equilibrium. Here we report the preparation of out-of-equilibrium arrays of trapped one-dimensional (1D) Bose gases, each containing from 40 to 250 87Rb atoms, which do not noticeably equilibrate even after thousands of collisions. Our results are probably explainable by the well-known fact that a homogeneous 1D Bose gas with point-like collisional interactions is integrable. Until now, however, the time evolution of out-of-equilibrium 1D Bose gases has been a theoretically unsettled issue, as practical factors such as harmonic trapping and imperfectly point-like interactions may compromise integrability. The absence of damping in 1D Bose gases may lead to potential applications in force sensing and atom interferometry.

941 citations