Bio: V. Mohanasrinivasan is an academic researcher from VIT University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Nattokinase & Nanoparticle. The author has an hindex of 11, co-authored 29 publications receiving 506 citations.
TL;DR: In this paper, the morphology structure and stability of the synthesized ZnO nanoparticles were studied using XRD, FTIR, SEM, FE-TEM and Zeta potential.
01 Apr 2014
TL;DR: Chitosan was found to be effective in removing metal ions Cu(II), Zn(II, Fe(II) and Cr(IV) from industrial effluent and Antibacterial activity of the prepared chitOSan was also determined against Xanthomonas sp.
Abstract: Chitosan, a natural biopolymer composed of a linear polysaccharide of α (1–4)-linked 2-amino 2-deoxy β-d glucopyranose was synthesized by deacetylation of chitin, which is one of the major structural elements, that forms the exoskeleton of crustacean shrimps. The present study was undertaken to prepare chitosan from shrimp shell waste. The physiochemical properties like degree of deacetylation (74.82 %), ash content (2.28 %), and yield (17 %) of prepared chitosan indicated that that shrimp shell waste is a good source of chitosan. Functional property like water-binding capacity (1,136 %) and fat-binding capacity (772 %) of prepared chitosan are in total concurrence with commercially available chitosan. Fourier Transform Infra Red spectrum shows characteristic peaks of amide at 1,629.85 cm−1 and hydroxyl at 3,450.65 cm−1. X-ray diffraction pattern was employed to characterize the crystallinity of prepared chitosan and it indicated two characteristic peaks at 10° and 20° at (2θ). Scanning electron microscopy analysis was performed to determine the surface morphology. Heavy metal removal efficiency of prepared chitosan was determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Chitosan was found to be effective in removing metal ions Cu(II), Zn(II), Fe(II) and Cr(IV) from industrial effluent. Antibacterial activity of the prepared chitosan was also determined against Xanthomonas sp. isolated from leaves affected with citrus canker.
TL;DR: The possible mechanism of sesquiterpenes to play a significant role in antitumor cascade is proposed and open up a new facet for a potent drug as an anticancer agent.
Abstract: The main aim of the current study is to explore the bioactive potential of Streptomyces sp. VITJS8 isolated from the marine saltern. The cultural, biochemical, and morphological studies were performed to acquire the characteristic features of the potent isolate VITJS8. The 16Sr DNA sequencing was performed to investigate the phylogenetic relationship between the Streptomyces genera. The structure of the compound was elucidated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), infra-red (IR), and ultra-violet (UV) spectroscopic data analysis. The GC-MS showed the retention time at 22.39 with a single peak indicating the purity of the active compound, and the molecular formula was established as C14H9ONCl2 based on the peak at m/z 277 [M](+). Furthermore, separated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), their retention time (t r) 2.761 was observed with the absorption maxima at 310 nm. The active compound showed effective inhibitory potential against four clinical pathogens at 500 μg/mL. The antioxidant activity was found effective at the IC50 value of 500 μg/mL with 90 % inhibition. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-ditetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay revealed the cytotoxicity against HepG2 cells at IC50 of 250 μg/mL. The progression of apoptosis was evidenced by morphological changes by nuclear staining. The DNA fragmentation pattern was observed at 250 μg/mL concentration. Based on flow cytometric analysis, it was evident that the compound was effective in inhibiting the sub-G0/G1 phase of cell cycle. The in vitro findings were also supported by the binding mode molecular docking studies. The active compound revealed minimum binding energy of -7.84 and showed good affinity towards the active region of topoisomerase-2α that could be considered as a suitable inhibitor. Lastly, we performed 30 ns molecular dynamic simulation analysis using GROMACS to aid in better designing of anticancer drugs. Simulation result of root mean square deviation (RMSD) analysis showed that protein-ligand complex reaches equilibration state around 10 ns that illustrates the docked complex is stable. We propose the possible mechanism of sesquiterpenes to play a significant role in antitumor cascade. Hence, our studies open up a new facet for a potent drug as an anticancer agent.
TL;DR: β-Galactosidase from Lactobacillus plantarum HF571129 was immobilized on zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using adsorption and cross-linking technique and showed broad-spectrum pH optima at pH 5–7.5 and temperature 50–60 °C.
Abstract: β-Galactosidase from Lactobacillus plantarum HF571129 was immobilized on zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using adsorption and cross-linking technique. Immobilized β-galactosidase showed broad-spectrum pH optima at pH 5–7.5 and temperature 50–60 °C. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) showed that β-galactosidase successfully immobilized onto supports. Due to the limited diffusion of high molecular weight substrate, K m of immobilized enzyme slightly increased from 6.64 to 10.22 mM, while V max increased from 147.5 to 192.4 µmol min−1 mg−1 as compared to the soluble enzyme. The cross-linked adsorbed enzyme retained 90 % activity after 1-month storage, while the native enzyme showed only 74 % activity under similar incubation conditions. The cross-linked β-galactosidase showed activity until the seventh cycle and maintained 88.02 % activity even after the third cycle. The activation energy of thermal deactivation from immobilized biocatalyst was 24.33 kcal/mol with a half-life of 130.78 min at 35 °C. The rate of lactose hydrolysis for batch and packed bed was found to be 0.023 and 0.04 min−1.
TL;DR: This is the first report which has produced 20 fold increase of bacteriocin for Pediococcus pentosaceus KC692718 from that of MRS medium with 1 280 AU/mL.
Abstract: Bacteriocins have been produced by various Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains isolated from dairy and fermented vegetable sources. In the current study we have isolated a novel bacteriocin producing strain Pediococcus pentosaceus KC692718 from mixed vegetable pickles (India). A 2 step process optimization for enhancing production of bacteriocin from the isolates was carried out with One-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) and Response Surface Methodology (RSM) methods. A 2.5 fold (AU/mL) increase of bacteriocin was observed for sucrose (2.4 %) as carbon source and 4.7 fold (AU/mL) increased bacteriocin was observed in the presence of soyatone (1.03 %) as nitrogen source in the OFAT experiments. In order to increase bacteriocin production RSM tool was performed with optimized chemical and physical sources using Design expert 18.104.22.168. Soyatone (1.03 %), sucrose (2.4 %), pH (5.5) and temperature (34.5 oC) condition yielded 25,600.34 AU/mL of bacteriocin from P. pentosaceus KC692718. This is the first report which has produced 20 fold increase of bacteriocin for Pediococcus pentosaceus KC692718 from that of MRS medium with 1 280 AU/mL
TL;DR: The methods of synthesizing zinc oxide nanocomposites as well as their characteristics, antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity against normal and tumor cells are reviewed.
TL;DR: In this article, the synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using leaf aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica (L.) and its antimicrobial activities was described.
TL;DR: In this review, biogenic synthesis of zinc oxide (ZnO) NPs, procedures of syntheses, mechanism of formation and their various applications have been discussed.
Abstract: Nanotechnology is emerging as an important area of research with its tremendous applications in all fields of science, engineering, medicine, pharmacy, etc. It involves the materials and their applications having one dimension in the range of 1-100nm. Generally, various techniques are used for syntheses of nanoparticles (NPs) viz. laser ablation, chemical reduction, milling, sputtering, etc. These conventional techniques e.g. chemical reduction method, in which various hazardous chemicals are used for the synthesis of NPs later become liable for innumerable health risks due to their toxicity and endangering serious concerns for environment, while other approaches are expensive, need high energy for the synthesis of NPs. However, biogenic synthesis method to produce NPs is eco-friendly and free of chemical contaminants for biological applications where purity is of concerns. In biological method, different biological entities such as extract, enzymes or proteins of a natural product are used to reduce and stabilised formation of NPs. The nature of these biological entities also influence the structure, shape, size and morphology of synthesized NPs. In this review, biogenic synthesis of zinc oxide (ZnO) NPs, procedures of syntheses, mechanism of formation and their various applications have been discussed. Various entities such as proteins, enzymes, phytochemicals, etc. available in the natural reductants are responsible for synthesis of ZnO NPs.
TL;DR: In this paper, the principles of green chemistry and their application in plant-mediated synthesis of nanoparticles and their recent applications are reviewed. But the use of biological materials such as plants is usually safe.
Abstract: Green synthesis of nanoparticles has many potential applications in environmental and biomedical fields. Green synthesis aims in particular at decreasing the usage of toxic chemicals. For instance, the use of biological materials such as plants is usually safe. Plants also contain reducing and capping agents. Here we present the principles of green chemistry, and we review plant-mediated synthesis of nanoparticles and their recent applications. Nanoparticles include gold, silver, copper, palladium, platinum, zinc oxide, and titanium dioxide.
TL;DR: The biological synthesis of ZnO NPs by the microbes, the mechanisms of the biological synthesis, parameters for the optimization process and their potential application as an antimicrobial agent and feed supplement in the animal industry are reviewed as well as their toxicological hazards on animals are reviewed.
Abstract: In recent years, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have gained tremendous attention attributed to their unique properties. Notably, evidence has shown that zinc is an important nutrient in living organisms. As such, both prokaryotes and eukaryotes including bacteria, fungi and yeast are exploited for the synthesis of ZnO NPs by using microbial cells or enzyme, protein and other biomolecules compounds in either an intracellular or extracellular route. ZnO NPs exhibit antimicrobial properties, however, the properties of nanoparticles (NPs) are depended upon on their size and shape, which make them specific for various applications. Nevertheless, the desired size and shape of NPs can be obtained through the optimization process of microbes mediated synthesis by manipulating their reaction conditions. It should be noted that ZnO NPs are synthesized by various chemical and physical methods. Nonetheless, these methods are expensive and not environmentally friendly. On that account, the microbes mediated synthesis of ZnO NPs have rapidly evolved recently where the microbes are cleaner, eco-friendly, non-toxic and biocompatible as the alternatives to chemical and physical practices. Moreover, zinc in the form of NPs is more effective than their bulk counterparts and thus, they have been explored for many potential applications including in animals industry. Notably, with the advent of multi-drug resistant strains, ZnO NPs have emerged as the potential antimicrobial agents. This is mainly due to their superior properties in combating a broad spectrum of pathogens. Moreover, zinc is known as an essential trace element for most of the biological function in the animal’s body. As such, the applications of ZnO NPs have been reported to significantly enhance the health and production of the farm animals. Thus, this paper reviews the biological synthesis of ZnO NPs by the microbes, the mechanisms of the biological synthesis, parameters for the optimization process and their potential application as an antimicrobial agent and feed supplement in the animal industry as well as their toxicological hazards on animals.