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Author

V. R. Southgate

Other affiliations: Janssen Pharmaceutica
Bio: V. R. Southgate is an academic researcher from British Museum. The author has contributed to research in topics: Schistosoma intercalatum & Schistosoma haematobium. The author has an hindex of 18, co-authored 39 publications receiving 803 citations. Previous affiliations of V. R. Southgate include Janssen Pharmaceutica.

Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is suggested that introgressive hybridisation of this kind may have been responsible for the evolution of certain characteristic local strains of African schistosomes and for the failure of the faecal eggs recovered from children with hybrid infections.
Abstract: A survey of 500 schoolchildren in Loum in 1968 revealed an overall infection rate of 54.2% with Schistosoma intercalatum and this was the only species of schistosome encountered. In 1972 a number of children were found to be passing schistosome eggs in their urine and these eggs ranged in shape and size from the forms characteristic for S. haematobium to those of S. intercalatum. Preliminary laboratory studies demonstrated that hybridisation between the two species was occurring. Subsequent field surveys showed that the snail hosts for the two parasites (B. rohlfsi for S. haematobium and B. forskali for S. intercalatum) were both present in the river Mbette and its tributaries in Loum and the distribution of the two snail species coincided closely with the distribution of the schistosomes in the human population. Detailed study of a small group of children passing hybrid eggs in their urine revealed that few of them were passing eggs in their faeces and that those eggs which were found in faeces were not viable. Analysis of schistosome egg-shape by plotting cumulative size-frequency data on probability paper demonstrated that the graph obtained from a natural hybrid series was different from that given by a known mixture of the two separate species. The hybrid series included a number of exceptionally large eggs resembling those of S. bovis but isolation of these eggs and subsequent laboratory passage of the parasites showed that they were part of the series and were not evidence of the presence of a third species. Hybridisation experiments in the laboratory showed that the cross S. haematobium ♂ × S. intercalatum ♀ is fully viable but that the reverse mating is not successful, thus accounting for the failure of the faecal eggs recovered from children with hybrid infections. Histological results from laboratory passaged hybrids suggest that the Ziehl-positive staining reaction of the egg-shells of S. intercalatum may be a recessive character. The observations reported here indicate that S. haematobium has only recently become established in Loum and that it is, through introgressive hybridisation, replacing the indigenous S. intercalatum. A suggested explanation for the change in the parasite fauna is offered and this depends upon ecological changes resulting from forest clearance and agricultural development providing improved conditions for the spread of B. rohlfsi, the snail host for S. haematobium. It is suggested that, in contrast to recent reports on the spread of S. intercalatum, this species is in fact retreating and being replaced by S. haematobium in areas where forest clearance is taking place. In conclusion it is suggested that introgressive hybridisation of this kind may have been responsible for the evolution of certain characteristic local strains of African schistosomes.

74 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Viable hybrid parasites were produced in the laboratory and were maintained up until the F4 generation, Comparisons of egg morphology, surface structure of adult male worms and enzyme profiles have been made between experimental hybrid lines and field isolates.

59 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Differences in infectivity, growth rates, maturation times, egg production and tissue deposition of eggs in the different strains of S. bovis are recorded.
Abstract: Summary Some biological characteristics of Schistosoma bovis Morocco, Sardinia and Iran in hamsters are described and discussed. Differences in infectivity, growth rates, maturation times, egg production and tissue deposition of eggs in the different strains are recorded. The egg shape and size of S. bovis Morocco, Sardinia, Iran, Kenya and S. mattheei are compared, as are the acid phosphatase, malate dehydrogenase and glucose 3-phosphate dehydrogenase isoenzymes. The compatibility/incompatibility of the same four strains of S. bovis to various members of the five species complexes of the genus Bulinus are recorded.

57 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is concluded that any definite decision on the relative status of the two strains of S. intercalatum is still premature, in the light of what is known about other species of African Schistosoma.

49 citations


Cited by
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Book ChapterDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the origins and geographical spread of F. gigantica and F. hepatica were investigated by means of complete sequences of ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA) internal transcribed spacer (ITS)−2 and ITS−1 and mitochondrial cox1 and nad1 from areas with only one fasciolid species.
Abstract: Fascioliasis, caused by liver fluke species of the genus Fasciola, has always been well recognized because of its high veterinary impact but it has been among the most neglected diseases for decades with regard to human infection. However, the increasing importance of human fascioliasis worldwide has re‐launched interest in fascioliasis. From the 1990s, many new concepts have been developed regarding human fascioliasis and these have furnished a new baseline for the human disease that is very different to a simple extrapolation from fascioliasis in livestock. Studies have shown that human fascioliasis presents marked heterogeneity, including different epidemiological situations and transmission patterns in different endemic areas. This heterogeneity, added to the present emergence/re‐emergence of the disease both in humans and animals in many regions, confirms a worrying global scenario. The huge negative impact of fascioliasis on human communities demands rapid action. When analyzing how better to define control measures for endemic areas differing at such a level, it would be useful to have genetic markers that could distinguish each type of transmission pattern and epidemiological situation. Accordingly, this chapter covers aspects of aetiology, geographical distribution, epidemiology, transmission and control in order to obtain a solid baseline for the interpretation of future results. The origins and geographical spread of F. hepatica and F. gigantica in both the ruminant pre‐domestication times and the livestock post‐domestication period are analyzed. Paleontological, archaeological and historical records, as well as genetic data on recent dispersal of livestock species, are taken into account to establish an evolutionary framework for the two fasciolids across all continents. Emphasis is given to the distributional overlap of both species and the roles of transportation, transhumance and trade in the different overlap situations. Areas with only one Fasciola spp. are distinguished from local and zonal overlaps in areas where both fasciolids co‐exist. Genetic techniques applied to liver flukes in recent years that are useful to elucidate the genetic characteristics of the two fasciolids are reviewed. The intra‐specific and inter‐specific variabilities of ‘pure’ F. hepatica and ‘pure’ F. gigantica were ascertained by means of complete sequences of ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA) internal transcribed spacer (ITS)‐2 and ITS‐1 and mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid (mtDNA) cox1 and nad1 from areas with only one fasciolid species. Fasciolid sequences of the same markers scattered in the literature are reviewed. The definitive haplotypes established appear to fit the proposed global evolutionary scenario. Problems posed by fasciolid cross‐breeding, introgression and hybridization in overlap areas are analyzed. Nuclear rDNA appears to correlate with adult fluke characteristics and fasciolid/lymnaeid specificity, whereas mtDNA does not. However, flukes sometimes appear so intermediate that they cannot be ascribed to either F. hepatica‐like or F. gigantica‐like forms and snail specificity may be opposite to the one deduced from the adult morphotype. The phenotypic characteristics of adults and eggs of ‘pure’ F. hepatica and F. gigantica, as well as of intermediate forms in overlap areas, are compared, with emphasis on the definitive host influence on egg size in humans. Knowledge is sufficient to support F. hepatica and F. gigantica as two valid species, which recently diverged by adaptation to different pecoran and lymnaeid hosts in areas with differing environmental characteristics. Their phenotypic differences and ancient pre‐domestication origins involve a broad geographical area that largely exceeds the typical, more local scenarios known for sub‐species units. Phenomena such as abnormal ploidy and aspermic parthenogenesis in hybrids suggest that their separate evolution in pre‐domestication times allowed them to achieve almost total genetic isolation. Recent sequencing results suggest that present assumptions on fasciolid‐lymnaeid specificity might be wrong. The crucial role of lymnaeids in fascioliasis transmission, epidemiology and control was the reason for launching a worldwide lymnaeid molecular characterization initiative. This initiative has already furnished useful results on several continents. A standardized methodology for fasciolids and lymnaeids is proposed herein in order that future work is undertaken on a comparable basis. A complete understanding of molecular epidemiology is expected to help greatly in designing global actions and local interventions for control of fascioliasis.

544 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review addresses changes in the ecology of vectors and epidemiology of vector-borne diseases which result from deforestation from viral and parasitic infections where disease patterns have been directly or indirectly influenced by loss of natural tropical forests.
Abstract: This review addresses changes in the ecology of vectors and epidemiology of vector-borne diseases which result from deforestation. Selected examples are considered from viral and parasitic infections (arboviruses, malaria, the leishmaniases, filariases, Chagas Disease and schistosomiasis) where disease patterns have been directly or indirectly influenced by loss of natural tropical forests. A wide range of activities have resulted in deforestation. These include colonisation and settlement, transmigrant programmes, logging, agricultural activities to provide for cash crops, mining, hydropower development and fuelwood collection. Each activity influences the prevalence, incidence and distribution of vector-borne disease. Three main regions are considered--South America, West & Central Africa and South-East Asia. In each, documented changes in vector ecology and behaviour and disease pattern have occurred. Such changes result from human activity at the forest interface and within the forest. They include both deforestation and reafforestation programmes. Deforestation, or activities associated with it, have produced new habitats for Anopheles darlingi mosquitoes and have caused malaria epidemics in South America. The different species complexes in South-East Asia (A. dirus, A. minimus, A. balabacensis) have been affected in different ways by forest clearance with different impacts on malaria incidence. The ability of zoophilic vectors to adapt to human blood as an alternative source of food and to become associated with human dwellings (peridomestic behaviour) have influenced the distribution of the leishmaniases in South America. Certain species of sandflies (Lutzomyia intermedia, Lu. longipalpis, Lu. whitmani), which were originally zoophilic and sylvatic, have adapted to feeding on humans in peridomestic and even periurban situations. The changes in behaviour of reservoir hosts and the ability of pathogens to adapt to new reservoir hosts in the newly-created habitats also influence the patterns of disease. In anthroponotic infections, such as Plasmodium, Onchocerca and Wuchereria, changes in disease patterns and vector ecology may be more difficult to detect. Detailed knowledge of vector species and species complexes is needed in relation to changing climate associated with deforestation. The distributions of the Anopheles gambiae and Simulium damnosum species complexes in West Africa are examples. There have been detailed longitudinal studies of Anopheles gambiae populations in different ecological zones of West Africa. Studies on Simulium damnosum cytoforms (using chromosome identification methods) in the Onchocerciasis Control Programme were necessary to detect changes in distribution of species in relation to changed habitats. These examples underline the need for studies on the taxonomy of medically-important insects in parallel with long-term observations on changing habitats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

344 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work discusses what is known about the human health implications of changes in the structure and function of natural systems and proposes that these changes are affecting human health in a variety of important ways.
Abstract: Human activity is rapidly transforming most of Earth’s natural systems How this transformation is impacting human health, whose health is at greatest risk, and the magnitude of the associated disease burden are relatively new subjects within the field of environmental health We discuss what is known about the human health implications of changes in the structure and function of natural systems and propose that these changes are affecting human health in a variety of important waysWe identify several gaps and limitations in the research that has been done to date and propose a more systematic and comprehensive approach to applied research in this field Such efforts could lead to a more robust understanding of the human health impacts of accelerating environmental change and inform decision making in the land-use planning, environmental conservation, and public health policy realms global change | ecosystem services | ecology | planetary boundaries | ecological footprint

332 citations

DOI
01 Jan 1985

330 citations