TL;DR: In this article, a blend of experimental and theoretical approaches was used to estimate residual stresses caused by welding in the case of pipes and plane strain assumption in case of thick weldments.
TL;DR: In this paper, a bibliographical review of the finite element methods (FEMs) applied to the analysis and simulation of welding processes is presented. But the authors do not provide a detailed discussion of the application of FEMs to welding processes.
Abstract: This paper gives a bibliographical review of the finite element methods (FEMs) applied to the analysis and simulation of welding processes. The bibliography at the end of the paper contains references to papers, conference proceedings and theses/dissertations on the subject that were published between 1976 and 1996. The following topics are included: modelling of welding processes in general, modelling of specific welding processes, influence of geometrical parameters, heat transfer and fluid flow in welds, residual stresses and deformation in welds, fracture mechanics and welding, fatigue of welded structures, destructive and nondestructive evaluation of weldments and cracks, welded tubular joints, pipes and pressure vessels/components, and welds in plates and other structures/components.
TL;DR: In this article, the effect of post-weld heat-treatment on the mechanical properties and residual stresses of I-beam welded box-sections in structural steel material has been evaluated.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present two-dimensional information on the residual stresses in 8 mm 5383-H321 aluminium plates joined by double pass friction stir welding (FSW).
Abstract: This paper presents two-dimensional information on the residual stresses in 8 mm 5383-H321 aluminium plates joined by double pass (DP) friction stir welding (FSW). It considers the inherent variability in residual stress magnitudes along 0.5 m lengths of weld pass, and their modification under a sequence of applied fatigue loads. This represents one of a planned series of experiments aimed at illuminating the effects of fatigue cycling on residual stress fields. In this particular case, the magnitudes of the bending fatigue loads (R = 0.1) were chosen to correlate with the measured proof strengths of the weld metal (approximately 160 MPa) and the parent plate (approximately 260-270 MPa). In four-point bend S-N tests at R = 0.1 on 40 mm wide FS welded specimens of this alloy and plate thickness, these peak stress levels correspond to lives of around 10 5 cycles and 10 7 cycles, respectively. Results from the work indicate that significant variability exists among welded plates in peak compressive stress magnitudes (a range of perhaps -50 MPa to -140 MPa), although peak tensile stresses were relatively low and more consistent (from around 0 to 30 MPa). Fatigue loading accentuates the peak-to-valley stress change and causes an overall translation of the stresses to become more positive. Peak tensile stresses increase several-fold during fatigue cycling.
TL;DR: In this paper, the effect of post weld heat treatments (PWHTs) on the residual stress of low carbon steel AISI 1020 welded components was investigated by applying different schemes of soaking temperatures of 450, 550 and 650°C, heating rates of 50, 100 and 400°C/h, time durations of 0.5, 2 and 10 hours, and cooling rates of 10, 40 and 125°C /h.
TL;DR: In this article, the effect of post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) on the mechanical properties and residual stress of high-chromium steel AISI 410 used in aircraft engines was investigated.