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Author

V. Velmurugan

Bio: V. Velmurugan is an academic researcher from VIT University. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Graphene & Oxide. The author has an hindex of 12, co-authored 26 publication(s) receiving 1159 citation(s).

Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Water pollution by various toxic contaminants has become one of the most serious problems worldwide. Various technologies have been used to treat water and waste water including chemical precipitation, ion-exchange, adsorption, membrane filtration, coagulation–flocculation, flotation and electrochemical methods. From past few decades, nanotechnology has gained wide attention and various nanomaterials have been developed for the water remediation. In the present review article, various nanomaterials have been reviewed which have been used for water decontamination. The special emphasis in the review has been given on adsorption, photocatalytic and antibacterial activity of nanomaterials.

667 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Co9S8/graphene nanocomposites (Co9S8/G) at various concentrations of graphene and Co9S8 were prepared by a simple chemical route from cobalt nitrate and graphene as precursors in the presence of PVP as surfactant and thioacetamide (TAA) as sulfur source. To gain knowledge about the structural, morphological and physical properties, the composite material was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). SEM measurements showed the presence of well dispersed, ∼300 nm sized Co9S8 nanoflakes. To assess the properties of the nanocomposites for their applicability in supercapacitors, electrochemical analysis was carried out in 6 M KOH electrolyte. A maximum specific capacitance of 808 F g−1 was observed for Co9S8/G-d at 5 mV s−1 scan rate. Galvanostatic charge–discharge curves showed the excellent cyclic stability of Co9S8/G-d composite with higher charge–discharge duration than pure Co9S8. The excellent electrochemical performance of the composite could be due to the better electrical conductivity behavior of graphene on Co9S8 nanoflakes.

82 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A simple chemical route was adopted for the preparation of graphene by chemical reduction route using sodium borohydride (NaBH 4 ) as a reducing agent. A systematic study was done to show the effect of NaBH 4 on the reduction and the obtained graphene samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Atomic force microcopy and High resolution transmission electron microscopy. Better reduction of GO was observed at GO and NaBH 4 ratio of 1:10 (denoted as SR1:10). Further, the investigation was emphasized to show the effect of the above GO to reductant ratio on its charge storage properties. Electrochemical measurements were carried out in 6 M KOH electrolyte and the results show that the capacitance performance was increased in the order of GO 4 was optimized to 1:10 for high degree reduction of graphene, which has higher capacitance towards supercapacitor applications.

73 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Magnetic cobalt and nickel ferrites (CoFe2O4 & NiFe2O4) with graphene nanocomposites (CoFe2O4–G & NiFe2O4–G) were synthesized via a solvothermal process and used as an adsorbent for the removal of lead (Pb(II)) and cadmium (Cd(II)) ions from aqueous solution. The as-prepared materials were characterized by field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), a Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area analyzer, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and VSM analysis. To probe the nature of the adsorbent, various experiments were investigated like contact time, adsorbent dose, solution pH and temperature were optimized. The isotherm model fitting studies demonstrated that the data fitted the Langmuir isotherm model well. The highest adsorption equilibrium for Pb(II) is 142.8 and 111.1 mg g−1 at pH of 5 and 310 K for CoFe2O4–G & NiFe2O4–G; while for Cd(II) it was 105.26 and 74.62 mg g−1 at pH of 7 and 310 K. The results show that such type of materials could be used for the removal of heavy metal ions from water for environmental applications.

63 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Tin oxide/graphene (SnO2/G) nanocomposites were prepared by a simple wet chemical route and the as prepared nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR). The characterized results showed the tetragonal structure of SnO2 nanostructures on uniform distribution on graphene sheets with a particle size of ∼50 nm. The reduction of graphene oxide to graphene during SnO2/G synthesis was confirmed from FTIR analysis. HRTEM analysis showed that the individual SnO2 nanoparticles deposited on graphene sheets. The electrochemical performances of SnO2/G nanocomposites towards supercapacitors were studied in 6M KOH electrolyte. A maximum specific capacitance of 818.6 F/g was obtained for SnO2/G-a composite at 5 mV/s scan rate suggesting that the presence of graphene matrix in SnO2 nanoparticles have enhanced the electrochemical behaviour of SnO2. The galvanostatic charge/discharge studies confirmed the good cyclic stability of the composite electrode. These excellent electrochemical properties suggested that the SnO2/G nanocomposites could be used for high energy density supercapacitor electrode materials.

58 citations


Cited by
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[...]

08 Dec 2001-BMJ
TL;DR: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one, which seems an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality.
Abstract: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one. I remember first hearing about it at school. It seemed an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality. Usually familiarity dulls this sense of the bizarre, but in the case of i it was the reverse: over the years the sense of its surreal nature intensified. It seemed that it was impossible to write mathematics that described the real world in …

30,199 citations

Journal Article
Abstract: This article reports on the International Nanofluid Property Benchmark Exercise, or INPBE, in which the thermal conductivity of identical samples of colloidally stable dispersions of nanoparticles or “nanofluids,” was measured by over 30 organizations worldwide, using a variety of experimental approaches, including the transient hot wire method, steady-state methods, and optical methods. The nanofluids tested in the exercise were comprised of aqueous and nonaqueous basefluids, metal and metal oxide particles, near-spherical and elongated particles, at low and high particle concentrations. The data analysis reveals that the data from most organizations lie within a relatively narrow band (±10% or less) about the sample average with only few outliers. The thermal conductivity of the nanofluids was found to increase with particle concentration and aspect ratio, as expected from classical theory. There are (small) systematic differences in the absolute values of the nanofluid thermal conductivity among the various experimental approaches; however, such differences tend to disappear when the data are normalized to the measured thermal conductivity of the basefluid. The effective medium theory developed for dispersed particles by Maxwell in 1881 and recently generalized by Nan et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 81, 6692 (1997)], was found to be in good agreement with the experimental data, suggesting that no anomalous enhancement of thermal conductivity was achieved in the nanofluids tested in this exercise.

881 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Detailed information and review on the adsorption of noxious heavy metal ions from wastewater effluents using various adsorbents - i.e., conventional (activated carbons, zeolites, clays, biosorbents, and industrial by-products) and nanostructured (fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, graphenes) is presented.
Abstract: The problem of water pollution is of a great concern. Adsorption is one of the most efficient techniques for removing noxious heavy metals from the solvent phase. This paper presents a detailed information and review on the adsorption of noxious heavy metal ions from wastewater effluents using various adsorbents – i.e., conventional (activated carbons, zeolites, clays, biosorbents, and industrial by-products) and nanostructured (fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, graphenes). In addition to this, the efficiency of developed materials for adsorption of the heavy metals is discussed in detail along with the comparison of their maximum adsorption capacity in tabular form. A special focus is made on the perspectives of further wider applications of nanostructured adsorbents (especially, carbon nanotubes and graphenes) in wastewater treatment.

702 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Water pollution by various toxic contaminants has become one of the most serious problems worldwide. Various technologies have been used to treat water and waste water including chemical precipitation, ion-exchange, adsorption, membrane filtration, coagulation–flocculation, flotation and electrochemical methods. From past few decades, nanotechnology has gained wide attention and various nanomaterials have been developed for the water remediation. In the present review article, various nanomaterials have been reviewed which have been used for water decontamination. The special emphasis in the review has been given on adsorption, photocatalytic and antibacterial activity of nanomaterials.

667 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Among the popular photocatalysts, ZnO is one of the most potent photocatalysts considering its green properties, cheap price, and durability. However, the practical application of ZnO is limited because of its large band gap energy and rapid recombination of the photoinduced electron–hole pairs. This paper reviews the main advancements in overcoming the barriers accompanied by pure ZnO and the criteria for fabrication of effective visible-light-responsive ZnO-based photocatalysts. Herein, the binary ZnO-based nanocomposites with p–n heterojunctions, n–n heterojunctions, and ternary ZnO-based nanocomposites based on different heterostructures, and their mechanism for enhanced light harvesting and charge separation/transfer were thoroughly discussed.

580 citations