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Valentina Kostadinova

Bio: Valentina Kostadinova is an academic researcher from University of Buckingham. The author has contributed to research in topics: Commission & European union. The author has an hindex of 3, co-authored 9 publications receiving 28 citations.

Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors examine the European Commission's contribution to the configuration of internal European Union borders and analyse the tools used by the Commission in influencing the EU decision-making process.
Abstract: This article examines the European Commission's contribution to the configuration of internal European Union borders. The focus is on several policy areas related to free movement of people. It engages with the literature examining the tools used by the Commission in influencing the EU decision-making process. It also looks into the studies summarizing the developments in EU migration that show the restrained manoeuvring space the Commission has in the policy areas. Building on these, the discursive techniques that are likely to be used in Commission articulations are conceptualized. The analysis of Commission documents shows that in the common visa policy and the common European asylum system (CEAS), the Commission has configured borders indirectly. In distinction, in the fields of intra-Community border controls and movement for work purposes of highly skilled third country nationals (TCNs), the Commission has managed to play a leadership role and to significantly and directly challenge the underlying logic upon which these policies are based.

13 citations

Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 2017
TL;DR: In this article, the authors focused on the Commission social dimension discourse, an area with great border-transforming potential given the role the welfare state played in the establishment of the borders of the traditional order.
Abstract: This chapter is focused on the Commission social dimension discourse, an area with great border-transforming potential given the role the welfare state played in the establishment of the borders of the traditional order. It argues that this policy field transforms identity borders. The key characteristic of the identity borders constructed through the Commission social dimension discourse is that they are more open and flexible in comparison to traditional ones. The examination of the Commission discourse reveals that despite the de-bordering trend towards the establishment of a common European social space, there are also border construction and reconstruction dynamics. These are a result of the EU social policy governance structure, which restricts the Commission’s ability to promote de-bordering.

4 citations

Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 2017
TL;DR: In this article, the authors identify a novel institution, the European Commission, as an actor in this process, whose role is worth examining in greater detail, and pose the study's key research question: how does the EU contribute to the transformation of borders?
Abstract: This chapter starts with the observation that despite expectations of the diminished importance of borders, what has taken place has been a process of borders transformation. Furthermore, it identifies a novel institution, the European Commission, as an actor in this process, whose role is worth examining in greater detail. Based on these observations, the Chapter poses the study’s key research question: how does the European Commission contribute to the transformation of borders? The subsequent sections lay the groundwork for addressing this question. They present and engage with the key academic debates relevant to the study, define the key terms, classify the types of borders to be examined, explain why and how the European Commission can sway the EU policy processes and outline the study’s methodology.

2 citations


Cited by
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Journal Article
TL;DR: This research examines the interaction between demand and socioeconomic attributes through Mixed Logit models and the state of art in the field of automatic transport systems in the CityMobil project.
Abstract: 2 1 The innovative transport systems and the CityMobil project 10 1.1 The research questions 10 2 The state of art in the field of automatic transport systems 12 2.1 Case studies and demand studies for innovative transport systems 12 3 The design and implementation of surveys 14 3.1 Definition of experimental design 14 3.2 Questionnaire design and delivery 16 3.3 First analyses on the collected sample 18 4 Calibration of Logit Multionomial demand models 21 4.1 Methodology 21 4.2 Calibration of the “full” model. 22 4.3 Calibration of the “final” model 24 4.4 The demand analysis through the final Multinomial Logit model 25 5 The analysis of interaction between the demand and socioeconomic attributes 31 5.1 Methodology 31 5.2 Application of Mixed Logit models to the demand 31 5.3 Analysis of the interactions between demand and socioeconomic attributes through Mixed Logit models 32 5.4 Mixed Logit model and interaction between age and the demand for the CTS 38 5.5 Demand analysis with Mixed Logit model 39 6 Final analyses and conclusions 45 6.1 Comparison between the results of the analyses 45 6.2 Conclusions 48 6.3 Answers to the research questions and future developments 52

4,784 citations

Dissertation
01 Jan 2017
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors focused on the negative impact of tax regulations on the private equity market in the European Union and proposed a tax-optimized fund, therewith meaning a uniform taxation, will create incentives for investors and investment companies to launch new funds, which in turn will be able to supply founders with money.
Abstract: Each market and thus every economy thrives on growth. It is certainly indisputable that founders of new businesses in the sense of an entrepreneur can contribute to this growth through their activities. They are creating jobs, pay taxes and may help suppliers to gain new contracts. Unfortunately, it is not always made easy for entrepreneurs. The thesis „European Private Equity-Funds for Entrepreneurs and the Impact on Market Growth within the Boundaries of the European Union“ is concerned with the unpleasant situation for entrepreneurs, that they often are unable to finance their idea, their start, because access to funds or financing through banks is often difficult or unavailable due to lack of securities. It follows an approach to facilitate access to funds for entrepreneurs. Unfortunately, banks are currently not passing the low interest rates on to entrepreneurs. In these cases, Private Equity funds can help. However, confusing and especially inconsistent tax regulations provide for the partial caution on the Private Equity market. For example, up until today there are different sales tax treatments of the management fees and hardly any uniform tax rates. The aspired tax harmonization so far is insufficient. Therefore, this work determines fiscal parameters optimized for tax purposes in such a way that it will become more clearly, for Private Equity companies to launch such a fund. This in turn, will indirectly grant entrepreneurs a better access to funds. This is based on the assumption that a tax-optimized fund, therewith meaning a uniform taxation, will create incentives for investors and investment companies to launch new funds, which in turn will be able to supply founders with money. In Chapter 1, therefore, the question is asked: Which countries of the European Union are, in regards to Venture Capital investments, measurably successful and share among each other such similarities that their conditions for optimized tax conditions may be taken in to consideration? Chapter 2 deals with the Private Equity concept whereas in basics three actors are involved in such a transaction. They are the investors, the Private Equity firms and the target company. Whereas the Private Equity firms launch the Private Equity fund and collect the money from the investors. That these companies play a prominent role in this construct is recognized by the fact that they are also responsible for the distribution of the money to the target companies. Furthermore, the economic significance of Private Equity in the European Union is being covered in this chapter. Thus, Private Equity is quite significantly involved in the gross domestic product throughout the EU. However, these figures also illustrate that still too little is being invested in such constructs. This happens even though the positive effects such as job creation are undisputed. In order to correctly classify this and to be able to determine the gross domestic product as the most important figure of this work at a later point, the neo-classical and Keynesian growth theories have been examined, whereas Keynes has certainly experienced a renaissance in the EU. The fundamental consideration and motivation for this work has been that entrepreneurs need to be helped. They have to have access to funding. However, the challenging legal framework and thus the tax classification partially obstruct the investment in new ideas. Chapter 3 deals with the legal framework of selected countries in the European Union. It discusses the AIFM Directive 2011/61/EU. Here, the countries of Austria, Luxembourg and Germany were considered in detail. This directive led to various discussions as to the tax legislation of the national states. However, it has been found that this directive hardly establishes obstacles in regards to fiscal issues. Only the consideration of whether the fund is a commercial or non-trading application can yet act detrimental. However, it could also be determined in that chapter that the taxation overall and thus also for Private Equity funds differs greatly throughout the countries of the EU. In Chapter 4, those countries of the EU are being determined, that are similar to each other in regards to their willingness to invest, applying a hierarchical cluster analysis with the parameters of Private Equity investments, Private Equity investments per capita, Venture Capital investments, Venture Capital investments per capita, the gross domestic product (GDP) and the GDP per capita. Thereafter, these parameters were supplemented by their corporate taxes to filter out groups still showing similarities to each other. The result of this selection by identifying similarities in their investment behavior while taking parameters such as corporate tax, the Purchasing Power Standard (PPS) and the Gross Domestic Product per capita into account, is that even countries exposed themselves, which certainly have not necessarily been outstandingly recognized prior to this study (see figure 2). Quite the opposite is the case. Economic giants like France and Germany are significantly vacating the top ranking positions. The selected countries – excluding Norway and Switzerland, which are not Member States of the European Union – in turn have been examined as to their tax parameters of capital gains taxes, withholding taxes and company taxes and their willingness to invest in Venture Capital. These were then summarized and each converted into a unitary tax rate. The calculation showed that with average tax rates of 14.29% capital gains tax, 14.60% withholding tax and a company tax of 22.89% an average per capita GDP of 53.720 euros and a PPS of 154.6 (the reference value is 100) can be expected. These tax rates are attended by an average willingness to invest in Venture Capital – the instrument so important to entrepreneurs – of the qualified countries of approximately 0.09% of the overall Gross Domestic Product. Thus, if all future foundation activities were based on the tax-efficient and fiscally unified “FONDS EUROPAEA”, the markets of the national states of the European Union would in long term settle at a uniform per capita Gross Domestic Product - and thus for most resident of the Member States a significantly higher per capita GDP. The FONDS EUROPAEA initially serves the holding companies by offering them tax-optimized and simplified conditions. However, in the end it is eventually beneficial especially to entrepreneurs, whose financing problems would disappear based on the increased activities of the holding companies.

108 citations

Posted Content
TL;DR: There are four different European social models, each with its own performance in terms of efficiency and equity as discussed by the authors, and the Nordic and the Anglo-Saxon models are both efficient, but only the former manages to combine equity and efficiency.
Abstract: Globalization implies changes that createboth threats and opportunities. The challenge for Europe is to become flexible in order to avail of the opportunities this brings and surmount the threats. This requires reforming labour market and social policies. When thinking about such reforms the notion of a single 'European social model' is largely irrelevant. There are four different European social models, each with its own performance in terms of efficiency and equity. The Nordic and the Anglo-Saxon models are both efficient, but only the former manages to combine equity and efficiency. The Continental and Mediterranean models are inefficient and unsustainable; they must therefore be reformed. © 2000 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

61 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors used the 2015-2016 waves of the UK Household Longitudinal Study (Understanding Society) to look at subjective wellbeing around the time of the June 2016 EU membership Referendum in the UK (Brexit).
Abstract: We use the 2015-2016 waves of the UK Household Longitudinal Study (Understanding Society) to look at subjective wellbeing around the time of the June 2016 EU membership Referendum in the UK (Brexit). We employ measures of both evaluative and affective wellbeing, namely life satisfaction and mental distress respectively. We find that those reporting lower life satisfaction in 2015 were more likely to express a preference for leaving the EU in 2016, while mental distress was less predictive of pro-Brexit attitudes. PostReferendum, those with Leave preferences enjoyed an increase in life satisfaction but there was no change in average life satisfaction in the overall sample. In contrast, the average level of mental distress increased in the sample post-Brexit with no significant difference between those preferring to remain in or to leave the EU. We test the robustness of our results by considering a number of potential caveats, such as sample selection, unobserved individual fixed effects or the interval between interviews. Overall, our results suggest that levels of subjective wellbeing may both be a cause and a result of the 2016 Brexit vote.

47 citations