Other affiliations: University of Alberta
Bio: Vasanthy Narayanaswami is an academic researcher from Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute. The author has contributed to research in topics: Apolipoprotein E & Circular dichroism. The author has an hindex of 22, co-authored 31 publications receiving 1475 citations. Previous affiliations of Vasanthy Narayanaswami include University of Alberta.
TL;DR: Attention is drawn to the association between cholesterol and ApoE in the aging and diseased brain, and to the behavior of the ApOE4 protein at the molecular level, for developing future strategies to address Apo E-related aberrations in cholesterol metabolism selectively in the brain.
Abstract: Cholesterol can be detrimental or vital, and must be present in the right place at the right time and in the right amount. This is well known in the heart and the vascular system. However, in the CNS cholesterol is still an enigma, although several of its fundamental functions in the brain have been identified. Brain cholesterol has attracted additional attention owing to its close connection to ApoE, a key polymorphic transporter of extracellular cholesterol in humans. Indeed, both cholesterol and ApoE are so critical to fundamental activities of the brain, that the brain regulates their synthesis autonomously. Yet, similar control mechanisms of ApoE and cholesterol homeostasis may exist on either sides of the blood–brain barrier. One indication is that the APOE e4 allele is associated with hypercholesterolemia and a proatherogenic profile on the vascular side and with increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease on the CNS side. In this review, we draw attention to the association between cholesterol and ApoE in the aging and diseased brain, and to the behavior of the ApoE4 protein at the molecular level. The attempt to correlate in vivo and in vitro observations is challenging but crucial for developing future strategies to address ApoE-related aberrations in cholesterol metabolism selectively in the brain.
TL;DR: The data support the concept that inter molecular coiled-coil helix formation is an essential structural feature of the apoE CT domain, which likely plays a role in clustering heparin-binding sites and/or sequestering the lipid-binding surface in lipid-free states.
Abstract: Human apolipoprotein E (apoE) is composed of an N-terminal (NT) domain (residues 1-191) that bears low-density lipoprotein receptor-binding sites, and a C-terminal (CT) domain (residues 210-299), which houses lipoprotein binding and apoE self-association sites. The NT domain is comprised of a four-helix bundle, while the structural organization of the CT domain is not known. Secondary structural algorithms predict that the apoE CT domain adopts an amphipathic alpha-helical conformation. On the basis of further sequence predictions, we identified a segment (residues 218-266) in the apoE CT domain that bears a high propensity to form a coiled-coil helix, which coincides with the putative lipoprotein-binding surface. An apoE construct bearing residues 201-299 that encompasses the entire CT domain was designed, expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by affinity chromatography. Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy of the apoE CT domain reveals spectra characteristic of coiled-coil helices, with the ratio of molar ellipticities at 222 nm and 208 nm ([theta](222)/[theta](208)) of 1.03. Trifluoroethanol (TFE) stabilized the secondary structure of the apoE CT domain and disrupted coiled-coil helix formation as determined by CD and tryptophan fluorescence analysis. Analytical ultracentrifugation and lysine-specific cross-linking analysis of the apoE CT domain revealed predominant formation of dimeric and tetrameric species in aqueous buffers, and monomeric forms in 50% TFE. Guanidine hydrochloride-induced denaturation studies reveal that, at low concentrations of denaturant, the apoE CT domain maintains the [theta](222)/[theta](208) ratio at approximately 1.0 and elicits an altered tertiary environment with a shift in oligomeric state towards a dimer, indicative of the role of coiled-coil helix formation in inter molecular interactions. Further, coiled-coil formation is disrupted by protonation below pH 6.0, with a corresponding decrease in Trp fluorescence emission intensity, demonstrating that salt-bridge interactions play a critical role in maintaining the structural integrity of the apoE CT domain. The data support the concept that inter molecular coiled-coil helix formation is an essential structural feature of the apoE CT domain, which likely plays a role in clustering heparin-binding sites and/or sequestering the lipid-binding surface in lipid-free states.
TL;DR: The data suggest that the CT lipid-binding domain of apoE encompassing amino acids 222-299 is necessary and sufficient for mediating ABCA1 lipid efflux and HDL particle assembly.
Abstract: This study was undertaken to identify the alpha-helical domains of human apoE that mediate cellular cholesterol efflux and HDL assembly via ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1). The C-terminal (CT) domain (residues 222-299) of apoE was found to stimulate ABCA1-dependent cholesterol efflux in a manner similar to that of intact apoE2, -E3, and -E4 in studies using J774 macrophages and HeLa cells. The N-terminal (NT) four-helix bundle domain (residues 1-191) was a relatively poor mediator of cholesterol efflux. On a per molecule basis, the CT domain stimulated cholesterol efflux with the same efficiency (Km approximately 0.2 microM) as intact apoA-I and apoE. Gel filtration chromatography of conditioned medium from ABCA1-expressing J774 cells revealed that, like the intact apoE isoforms, the CT domain promoted the assembly of HDL particles with diameters of 8 and 13 nm. Removal of the CT domain abolished the formation of HDL-sized particles, and only larger particles eluting in the void volume were formed. Studies with CT truncation mutants of apoE3 and peptides indicated that hydrophobic helical segments governed the efficiency of cellular cholesterol efflux and that conjoined class A and G amphipathic alpha-helices were required for optimal efflux activity. Collectively, the data suggest that the CT lipid-binding domain of apoE encompassing amino acids 222-299 is necessary and sufficient for mediating ABCA1 lipid efflux and HDL particle assembly.
TL;DR: Data support a model wherein the α-helices in the receptor-binding region and the CT domain of apoE align perpendicular to the fatty acyl chains of the phospholipid bilayer.
Abstract: Human apolipoprotein E (apoE) mediates high affinity binding to the low density lipoprotein receptor when present on a lipidated complex. In the absence of lipid, however, apoE does not bind the receptor. Whereas the x-ray structure of lipid-free apoE3 N-terminal (NT) domain is known, the structural organization of its lipid-associated, receptor-active conformation is poorly understood. To study the organization of apoE amphipathic α-helices in a lipid-associated state, single tryptophan-containing apoE3 variants were employed in fluorescence quenching studies. The relative positions of the Trp residues with respect to the phospholipid component of apoE/lipid particles were established from the degree of quenching by phospholipids bearing nitroxide groups at various positions along their fatty acyl chains. Four apoE3-NT variants bearing Trp reporter groups at positions 141, 148, 155, or 162 within helix 4 and two apoE3 variants containing single Trp at positions 257 or 264 in the C-terminal (CT) domain, were reconstituted into phospholipid-containing discoidal complexes. Parallax analysis revealed that each engineered Trp residue in helix 4 of apoE3-NT, as well as those in the CT domain of apoE, localized ∼5 A from the center of the bilayer. Circular dichroism studies revealed that lipid association induces additional helix formation in apoE. Protease protection assays suggest the flexible loop segment between the NT and CT domains may transition from unstructured to helix upon lipid association. Taken together, these data support a model wherein the α-helices in the receptor-binding region and the CT domain of apoE align perpendicular to the fatty acyl chains of the phospholipid bilayer. In this alignment, the residues of helix 4 are arrayed in a positively charged, curved helical segment for optimal receptor interaction.
TL;DR: The formation of the protein corona, its structure and composition, and its influence on the physiological response are discussed, and an 'adsorbome' of 125 plasma proteins that are known to associate with nanomaterials are presented.
Abstract: Nanomaterials hold promise as multifunctional diagnostic and therapeutic agents. However, the effective application of nanomaterials is hampered by limited understanding and control over their interactions with complex biological systems. When a nanomaterial enters a physiological environment, it rapidly adsorbs proteins forming what is known as the protein ‘corona’. The protein corona alters the size and interfacial composition of a nanomaterial, giving it a biological identity that is distinct from its synthetic identity. The biological identity determines the physiological response including signalling, kinetics, transport, accumulation, and toxicity. The structure and composition of the protein corona depends on the synthetic identity of the nanomaterial (size, shape, and composition), the nature of the physiological environment (blood, interstitial fluid, cell cytoplasm, etc.), and the duration of exposure. In this critical review, we discuss the formation of the protein corona, its structure and composition, and its influence on the physiological response. We also present an ‘adsorbome’ of 125 plasma proteins that are known to associate with nanomaterials. We further describe how the protein corona is related to the synthetic identity of a nanomaterial, and highlight efforts to control protein–nanomaterial interactions. We conclude by discussing gaps in the understanding of protein–nanomaterial interactions along with strategies to fill them (167 references).
TL;DR: There is mounting evidence that APOE4 contributes to AD pathogenesis by modulating the metabolism and aggregation of amyloid-β peptide and by directly regulating brain lipid metabolism and synaptic functions through APOE receptors.
Abstract: The vast majority of Alzheimer's disease (AD) cases are late-onset and their development is probably influenced by both genetic and environmental risk factors. A strong genetic risk factor for late-onset AD is the presence of the e4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene, which encodes a protein with crucial roles in cholesterol metabolism. There is mounting evidence that APOE4 contributes to AD pathogenesis by modulating the metabolism and aggregation of amyloid-β peptide and by directly regulating brain lipid metabolism and synaptic functions through APOE receptors. Emerging knowledge of the contribution of APOE to the pathophysiology of AD presents new opportunities for AD therapy.
TL;DR: There is substantial evidence that differential effects of apoE isoform on AD risk are influenced by the ability of apOE to affect Aβ aggregation and clearance in the brain.
Abstract: Apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype is the major genetic risk factor for Alzheimer disease (AD); the e4 allele increases risk and the e2 allele is protective. In the central nervous system (CNS), apoE is produced by glial cells, is present in high-density-like lipoproteins, interacts with several receptors that are members of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) family, and is a protein that binds to the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide. There are a variety of mechanisms by which apoE isoform may influence risk for AD. There is substantial evidence that differential effects of apoE isoform on AD risk are influenced by the ability of apoE to affect Aβ aggregation and clearance in the brain. Other mechanisms are also likely to play a role in the ability of apoE to influence CNS function as well as AD, including effects on synaptic plasticity, cell signaling, lipid transport and metabolism, and neuroinflammation. ApoE receptors, including LDLRs, Apoer2, very low-density lipoprotein receptors (VLDLRs), and lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) appear to influence both the CNS effects of apoE as well as Aβ metabolism and toxicity. Therapeutic strategies based on apoE and apoE receptors may include influencing apoE/Aβ interactions, apoE structure, apoE lipidation, LDLR receptor family member function, and signaling. Understanding the normal and disease-related biology connecting apoE, apoE receptors, and AD is likely to provide novel insights into AD pathogenesis and treatment.
TL;DR: Preparation of pure protein ¢lms in an aqueous environment by adsorption on the IRE and Observation of a¬lm in situ by external re£ection.
Abstract: 2. Sample preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 2.1. Preparation of ¢lms by evaporation of the solvent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 2.2. Immersion of ¢lms in bulk liquid environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 2.3. Preparation of ¢lm by Langmuir-Blodgett transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 2.4. Adsorption from bulk phase method on Langmuir-Blodgett ¢lms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 2.5. Preparation of pure protein ¢lms in an aqueous environment by adsorption on the IRE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 2.6. Observation of a ¢lm in situ by external re£ection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 2.7. Depth pro¢ling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115