Other affiliations: Centre national de la recherche scientifique, Alnylam Pharmaceuticals, University of Massachusetts Medical School ...read more
Bio: Venkitasamy Kesavan is an academic researcher from Indian Institute of Technology Madras. The author has contributed to research in topics: Enantioselective synthesis & Catalysis. The author has an hindex of 22, co-authored 83 publications receiving 3728 citations. Previous affiliations of Venkitasamy Kesavan include Centre national de la recherche scientifique & Alnylam Pharmaceuticals.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this article, chemically modified short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) were used to silence an endogenous gene encoding apolipoprotein B (apoB) after intravenous injection in mice.
Abstract: RNA interference (RNAi) holds considerable promise as a therapeutic approach to silence disease-causing genes, particularly those that encode so-called 'non-druggable' targets that are not amenable to conventional therapeutics such as small molecules, proteins, or monoclonal antibodies. The main obstacle to achieving in vivo gene silencing by RNAi technologies is delivery. Here we show that chemically modified short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) can silence an endogenous gene encoding apolipoprotein B (apoB) after intravenous injection in mice. Administration of chemically modified siRNAs resulted in silencing of the apoB messenger RNA in liver and jejunum, decreased plasma levels of apoB protein, and reduced total cholesterol. We also show that these siRNAs can silence human apoB in a transgenic mouse model. In our in vivo study, the mechanism of action for the siRNAs was proven to occur through RNAi-mediated mRNA degradation, and we determined that cleavage of the apoB mRNA occurred specifically at the predicted site. These findings demonstrate the therapeutic potential of siRNAs for the treatment of disease.
•10 Aug 2005
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors described composition and methods for making and using chemically modified oligonucleotides agents for inhibiting gene expression in order to prevent gene expression from being suppressed.
Abstract: This invention relates composition and methods for making and using chemically modified oligonucleotides agents for inhibiting gene expression.
TL;DR: Under mild conditions (40 atm O(2), 28 degrees C, 10-15 h), an efficient aerobic oxidation ofcycloalkanes to cycloalkanols can be achieved using nanostructured amorphous metals such as Fe and Co and anAmorphous alloy like Fe(20)Ni(80) as catalysts.
Abstract: The functionalization of unactivated carbon-hydrogen bonds in saturated hydrocarbons has been investigated for both its synthetic and biological interest. Catalytic oxidation of alkanes has been explored using several oxidants, and those reactions with molecular oxygen under mild conditions are especially rewarding goals. The oxidation of cyclohexane turns out to be the least efficient of all major industrial processes.
TL;DR: A new bifunctional squaramide organocatalyst derived from L-proline mediated the first enantioselective synthesis of dihydrospiro[indoline-3,4'-pyrano[2,3-c]pyrazole] derivatives in excellent enantiOSElectivity by reacting pyrazolones with isatylidine β,γ-unsaturated α-ketoester.
Abstract: A new bifunctional squaramide organocatalyst derived from l-proline mediated the first enantioselective synthesis of dihydrospiro[indoline-3,4′-pyrano[2,3-c]pyrazole] derivatives in excellent enantioselectivity by reacting pyrazolones with isatylidine β,γ-unsaturated α-ketoester. This new catalyst outperformed widely used thioureas and squaramides in inducing enantioselectivity.
TL;DR: It is shown that a novel class of chemically engineered oligonucleotides, termed ‘antagomirs’, are efficient and specific silencers of endogenous miRNA levels in mice and may represent a therapeutic strategy for silencing miRNAs in disease.
Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an abundant class of non-coding RNAs that are believed to be important in many biological processes through regulation of gene expression. The precise molecular function of miRNAs in mammals is largely unknown and a better understanding will require loss-of-function studies in vivo. Here we show that a novel class of chemically engineered oligonucleotides, termed 'antagomirs', are efficient and specific silencers of endogenous miRNAs in mice. Intravenous administration of antagomirs against miR-16, miR-122, miR-192 and miR-194 resulted in a marked reduction of corresponding miRNA levels in liver, lung, kidney, heart, intestine, fat, skin, bone marrow, muscle, ovaries and adrenals. The silencing of endogenous miRNAs by this novel method is specific, efficient and long-lasting. The biological significance of silencing miRNAs with the use of antagomirs was studied for miR-122, an abundant liver-specific miRNA. Gene expression and bioinformatic analysis of messenger RNA from antagomir-treated animals revealed that the 3' untranslated regions of upregulated genes are strongly enriched in miR-122 recognition motifs, whereas downregulated genes are depleted in these motifs. Analysis of the functional annotation of downregulated genes specifically predicted that cholesterol biosynthesis genes would be affected by miR-122, and plasma cholesterol measurements showed reduced levels in antagomir-122-treated mice. Our findings show that antagomirs are powerful tools to silence specific miRNAs in vivo and may represent a therapeutic strategy for silencing miRNAs in disease.
TL;DR: An update on the progress of RNAi therapeutics is provided and novel synthetic materials for the encapsulation and intracellular delivery of nucleic acids are highlighted.
Abstract: In the 10 years that have passed since the Nobel prize-winning discovery of RNA interference (RNAi), billions of dollars have been invested in the therapeutic application of gene silencing in humans. Today, there are promising data from ongoing clinical trials for the treatment of age-related macular degeneration and respiratory syncytial virus. Despite these early successes, however, the widespread use of RNAi therapeutics for disease prevention and treatment requires the development of clinically suitable, safe and effective drug delivery vehicles. Here, we provide an update on the progress of RNAi therapeutics and highlight novel synthetic materials for the encapsulation and intracellular delivery of nucleic acids.
TL;DR: This review describes recent advances in the synthesis of biomolecule-nanoparticle/nanorod hybrid systems and the application of such assemblies in the generation of 2D and 3D ordered structures in solutions and on surfaces.
Abstract: Nanomaterials, such as metal or semiconductor nanoparticles and nanorods, exhibit similar dimensions to those of biomolecules, such as proteins (enzymes, antigens, antibodies) or DNA. The integration of nanoparticles, which exhibit unique electronic, photonic, and catalytic properties, with biomaterials, which display unique recognition, catalytic, and inhibition properties, yields novel hybrid nanobiomaterials of synergetic properties and functions. This review describes recent advances in the synthesis of biomolecule-nanoparticle/nanorod hybrid systems and the application of such assemblies in the generation of 2D and 3D ordered structures in solutions and on surfaces. Particular emphasis is directed to the use of biomolecule-nanoparticle (metallic or semiconductive) assemblies for bioanalytical applications and for the fabrication of bioelectronic devices.
TL;DR: Evidence is provided of inducing an RNAi mechanism of action in a human from the delivered siRNA and the presence of an mRNA fragment that demonstrates that siRNA-mediated mRNA cleavage occurs specifically at the site predicted for anRNAi mechanism from a patient who received the highest dose of the nanoparticles.
Abstract: Therapeutics that are designed to engage RNA interference (RNAi) pathways have the potential to provide new, major ways of imparting therapy to patients. Long, double-stranded RNAs were first shown to mediate RNAi in Caenorhabditis elegans, and the potential use of RNAi for human therapy has been demonstrated by the finding that small interfering RNAs (siRNAs; approximately 21-base-pair double-stranded RNA) can elicit RNAi in mammalian cells without producing an interferon response. We are at present conducting the first in-human phase I clinical trial involving the systemic administration of siRNA to patients with solid cancers using a targeted, nanoparticle delivery system. Here we provide evidence of inducing an RNAi mechanism of action in a human from the delivered siRNA. Tumour biopsies from melanoma patients obtained after treatment show the presence of intracellularly localized nanoparticles in amounts that correlate with dose levels of the nanoparticles administered (this is, to our knowledge, a first for systemically delivered nanoparticles of any kind). Furthermore, a reduction was found in both the specific messenger RNA (M2 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase (RRM2)) and the protein (RRM2) levels when compared to pre-dosing tissue. Most notably, we detect the presence of an mRNA fragment that demonstrates that siRNA-mediated mRNA cleavage occurs specifically at the site predicted for an RNAi mechanism from a patient who received the highest dose of the nanoparticles. Together, these data demonstrate that siRNA administered systemically to a human can produce a specific gene inhibition (reduction in mRNA and protein) by an RNAi mechanism of action.
TL;DR: This Review highlights recent advances in the synthesis, bioconjugation, and cellular uses of gold nanoconjugates.
Abstract: Gold colloids have fascinated scientists for over a century and are now heavily utilized in chemistry, biology, engineering, and medicine. Today these materials can be synthesized reproducibly, modified with seemingly limitless chemical functional groups, and, in certain cases, characterized with atomic-level precision. This Review highlights recent advances in the synthesis, bioconjugation, and cellular uses of gold nanoconjugates. There are now many examples of highly sensitive and selective assays based upon gold nanoconjugates. In recent years, focus has turned to therapeutic possibilities for such materials. Structures which behave as gene-regulating agents, drug carriers, imaging agents, and photoresponsive therapeutics have been developed and studied in the context of cells and many debilitating diseases. These structures are not simply chosen as alternatives to molecule-based systems, but rather for their new physical and chemical properties, which confer substantive advantages in cellular and medical applications.