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Vicki L. Colvin

Bio: Vicki L. Colvin is an academic researcher from Brown University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Nanoparticle & Colloidal crystal. The author has an hindex of 82, co-authored 211 publications receiving 40009 citations. Previous affiliations of Vicki L. Colvin include Rice University & Stanford University.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
04 Aug 1994-Nature
TL;DR: In this article, a hybrid organic/inorganic electroluminescent device was constructed based on the recombination of holes injected into a layer of semiconducting p-paraphenylene vinylene (PPV) with electrons injected into the multilayer film of cadmium selenide nanocrystals.
Abstract: ELECTROLUMINESCENT devices have been developed recently that are based on new materials such as porous silicon1 and semiconducting polymers2,3. By taking advantage of developments in the preparation and characterization of direct-gap semiconductor nanocrystals4–6, and of electroluminescent polymers7, we have now constructed a hybrid organic/inorganic electroluminescent device. Light emission arises from the recombination of holes injected into a layer of semiconducting p-paraphenylene vinylene (PPV)8–10 with electrons injected into a multilayer film of cadmium selenide nanocrystals. Close matching of the emitting layer of nanocrystals with the work function of the metal contact leads to an operating voltage11 of only 4V. At low voltages emission from the CdSe layer occurs. Because of the quantum size effect19–24 the colour of this emission can be varied from red to yellow by changing the nanocrystal size. At higher voltages green emission from the polymer layer predominates. Thus this device has a degree of voltage tunability of colour.

3,783 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, a hybrid organic/inorganic electroluminescent device was constructed based on the recombination of holes injected into a layer of semiconducting p-paraphenylene vinylene (PPV) with electrons injected into the multilayer film of cadmium selenide nanocrystals.
Abstract: ELECTROLUMINESCENT devices have been developed recently that are based on new materials such as porous silicon' and semiconducting polymers 2,3 . By taking advantage of developments in the preparation and characterization of direct-gap semiconductor nanocrystals 4-6 , and of electroluminescent polymers7, we have now constructed a hybrid organic/inorganic electroluminescent device. Light emission arises from the recombination of holes injected into a layer of semiconducting p-paraphenylene vinylene (PPV) 2-10 with electrons injected into a multilayer film of cadmium selenide nanocrystals. Close matching of the emitting layer of nanocrystals with the work function of the metal contact leads to an operating voltage" of only 4 V. At low voltages emission from the CdSe layer occurs. Because of the quantum size effect 19-24 the colour of this emission can be varied from red to yellow by changing the nanocrystal size. At higher voltages green emission from the polymer layer predominates. Thus this device has a degree of voltage tunability of colour.

3,285 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
18 Jan 2008-Small
TL;DR: For nanoparticles to move into the clinical arena, it is important that nanotoxicology research uncovers and understands how these multiple factors influence the toxicity of nanoparticles so that their undesirable properties can be avoided.
Abstract: Human exposure to nanoparticles is inevitable as nanoparticles become more widely used and, as a result, nanotoxicology research is now gaining attention. However, while the number of nanoparticle types and applications continues to increase, studies to characterize their effects after exposure and to address their potential toxicity are few in comparison. In the medical field in particular, nanoparticles are being utilized in diagnostic and therapeutic tools to better understand, detect, and treat human diseases. Exposure to nanoparticles for medical purposes involves intentional contact or administration; therefore, understanding the properties of nanoparticles and their effect on the body is crucial before clinical use can occur. This Review presents a summary of the in vitro cytotoxicity data currently available on three classes of nanoparticles. With each of these nanoparticles, different data has been published about their cytotoxicity due to varying experimental conditions as well as differing nanoparticle physiochemical properties. For nanoparticles to move into the clinical arena, it is important that nanotoxicology research uncovers and understands how these multiple factors influence the toxicity of nanoparticles so that their undesirable properties can be avoided.

2,546 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Vicki L. Colvin1
TL;DR: With the increased presence of nanomaterials in commercial products, a growing public debate is emerging on whether the environmental and social costs of nanotechnology outweigh its many benefits.
Abstract: With the increased presence of nanomaterials in commercial products, a growing public debate is emerging on whether the environmental and social costs of nanotechnology outweigh its many benefits. To date, few studies have investigated the toxicological and environmental effects of direct and indirect exposure to nanomaterials and no clear guidelines exist to quantify these effects.

2,118 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the spontaneous crystallization of monodisperse silica spheres into close-packed arrays is exploited for optical characterization of planar materials with diffractive optical properties.
Abstract: Materials whose dielectric constant varies spatially with submicrometer periodicity exhibit diffractive optical properties which are potentially valuable in a number of existing and emerging applications. Here, such systems are fabricated by exploiting the spontaneous crystallization of monodisperse silica spheres into close-packed arrays. By reliance on a vertical deposition technique to pack the spherical colloids into close-packed silica−air arrays, high quality samples can be prepared with thicknesses up to 50 μm. These samples are planar and thus suitable for optical characterization. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of these materials illustrates the close-packed ordering of the spherical colloids in planes parallel to the substrate; cross-sectional SEM micrographs of the arrays as well as optical methods are used to measure sample thickness and uniformity. Normal-incidence transmission spectra in the visible and near-infrared regions show distinct peaks due to diffraction from the colloidal layer...

1,997 citations


Cited by
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[...]

08 Dec 2001-BMJ
TL;DR: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one, which seems an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality.
Abstract: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one. I remember first hearing about it at school. It seemed an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality. Usually familiarity dulls this sense of the bizarre, but in the case of i it was the reverse: over the years the sense of its surreal nature intensified. It seemed that it was impossible to write mathematics that described the real world in …

33,785 citations

01 May 1993
TL;DR: Comparing the results to the fastest reported vectorized Cray Y-MP and C90 algorithm shows that the current generation of parallel machines is competitive with conventional vector supercomputers even for small problems.
Abstract: Three parallel algorithms for classical molecular dynamics are presented. The first assigns each processor a fixed subset of atoms; the second assigns each a fixed subset of inter-atomic forces to compute; the third assigns each a fixed spatial region. The algorithms are suitable for molecular dynamics models which can be difficult to parallelize efficiently—those with short-range forces where the neighbors of each atom change rapidly. They can be implemented on any distributed-memory parallel machine which allows for message-passing of data between independently executing processors. The algorithms are tested on a standard Lennard-Jones benchmark problem for system sizes ranging from 500 to 100,000,000 atoms on several parallel supercomputers--the nCUBE 2, Intel iPSC/860 and Paragon, and Cray T3D. Comparing the results to the fastest reported vectorized Cray Y-MP and C90 algorithm shows that the current generation of parallel machines is competitive with conventional vector supercomputers even for small problems. For large problems, the spatial algorithm achieves parallel efficiencies of 90% and a 1840-node Intel Paragon performs up to 165 faster than a single Cray C9O processor. Trade-offs between the three algorithms and guidelines for adapting them to more complex molecular dynamics simulations are also discussed.

29,323 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
16 Feb 1996-Science
TL;DR: In this article, the authors focus on the properties of quantum dots and their ability to join the dots into complex assemblies creates many opportunities for scientific discovery, such as the ability of joining the dots to complex assemblies.
Abstract: Current research into semiconductor clusters is focused on the properties of quantum dots-fragments of semiconductor consisting of hundreds to many thousands of atoms-with the bulk bonding geometry and with surface states eliminated by enclosure in a material that has a larger band gap. Quantum dots exhibit strongly size-dependent optical and electrical properties. The ability to join the dots into complex assemblies creates many opportunities for scientific discovery.

10,737 citations