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Author

Vijay Srinivasan

Other affiliations: Duke University
Bio: Vijay Srinivasan is an academic researcher from Research Triangle Park. The author has contributed to research in topics: Actuator & Microfluidics. The author has an hindex of 53, co-authored 84 publications receiving 7940 citations. Previous affiliations of Vijay Srinivasan include Duke University.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work presents an alternative paradigm--a fully integrated and reconfigurable droplet-based "digital" microfluidic lab-on-a-chip for clinical diagnostics on human physiological fluids, and demonstrates reliable and repeatable high-speed transport of microdroplets.
Abstract: Clinical diagnostics is one of the most promising applications for microfluidic lab-on-a-chip systems, especially in a point-of-care setting. Conventional microfluidic devices are usually based on continuous-flow in microchannels, and offer little flexibility in terms of reconfigurability and scalability. Handling of real physiological samples has also been a major challenge in these devices. We present an alternative paradigm—a fully integrated and reconfigurable droplet-based “digital” microfluidic lab-on-a-chip for clinical diagnostics on human physiological fluids. The microdroplets, which act as solution-phase reaction chambers, are manipulated using the electrowetting effect. Reliable and repeatable high-speed transport of microdroplets of human whole blood, serum, plasma, urine, saliva, sweat and tear, is demonstrated to establish the basic compatibility of these physiological fluids with the electrowetting platform. We further performed a colorimetric enzymatic glucose assay on serum, plasma, urine, and saliva, to show the feasibility of performing bioassays on real samples in our system. The concentrations obtained compare well with those obtained using a reference method, except for urine, where there is a significant difference due to interference by uric acid. A lab-on-a-chip architecture, integrating previously developed digital microfluidic components, is proposed for integrated and automated analysis of multiple analytes on a monolithic device. The lab-on-a-chip integrates sample injection, on-chip reservoirs, droplet formation structures, fluidic pathways, mixing areas and optical detection sites, on the same substrate. The pipelined operation of two glucose assays is shown on a prototype digital microfluidic lab-on-chip, as a proof-of-concept.

1,124 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The performance of magnetic bead-based immunoassays (cardiac troponin I) on a digital microfluidic cartridge in less than 8 minutes using whole blood samples and the capability to perform sample preparation for bacterial infectious disease pathogen, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and for human genomic DNA using magnetic beads are demonstrated.
Abstract: Point of care testing is playing an increasingly important role in improving the clinical outcome in health care management. The salient features of a point of care device are rapid results, integrated sample preparation and processing, small sample volumes, portability, multifunctionality and low cost. In this paper, we demonstrate some of these salient features utilizing an electrowetting-based Digital Microfluidic platform. We demonstrate the performance of magnetic bead-based immunoassays (cardiac troponin I) on a digital microfluidic cartridge in less than 8 minutes using whole blood samples. Using the same microfluidic cartridge, a 40-cycle real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed within 12 minutes by shuttling a droplet between two thermal zones. We further demonstrate, on the same cartridge, the capability to perform sample preparation for bacterial infectious disease pathogen, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and for human genomic DNA using magnetic beads. In addition to rapid results and integrated sample preparation, electrowetting-based digital microfluidic instruments are highly portable because fluid pumping is performed electronically. All the digital microfluidic chips presented here were fabricated on printed circuit boards utilizing mass production techniques that keep the cost of the chip low. Due to the modularity and scalability afforded by digital microfluidics, multifunctional testing capability, such as combinations within and between immunoassays, DNA amplification, and enzymatic assays, can be brought to the point of care at a relatively low cost because a single chip can be configured in software for different assays required along the path of care.

559 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a microfluidic lab-on-a-chip (LoC) platform for in vitro measurement of glucose for clinical diagnostic applications is presented, where droplets act as solution-phase reaction chambers and are manipulated using the electrowetting effect.

466 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article reviews efforts to develop various LoC applications using electrowetting-based digital microfluidics, and describes these applications, their implementation, and associated design issues.
Abstract: Digital-microfluidic lab-on-a chip (LoC) technology offers a platform for developing diagnostic applications with the advantages of portability, sample and reagent volume reduction, faster analysis, increased automation, low power consumption, compatibility with mass manufacturing, and high throughput. In addition to diagnostics, digital microfluidics is finding use in airborne chemical detection, DNA sequencing by synthesis, and tissue engineering. In this article, we review efforts to develop various LoC applications using electrowetting-based digital microfluidics. We describe these applications, their implementation, and associated design issues.

365 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A digital microfluidic platform for performing heterogeneous sandwich immunoassays based on efficient handling of magnetic beads is presented in this paper, based on manipulation of discrete droplets of samples and reagents using electrowetting without the need for channels where the droplets are free to move laterally.
Abstract: A digital microfluidic platform for performing heterogeneous sandwich immunoassays based on efficient handling of magnetic beads is presented in this paper. This approach is based on manipulation of discrete droplets of samples and reagents using electrowetting without the need for channels where the droplets are free to move laterally. Droplet-based manipulation of magnetic beads therefore does not suffer from clogging of channels. Immunoassays on a digital microfluidic platform require the following basic operations: bead attraction, bead washing, bead retention, and bead resuspension. Several parameters such as magnetic field strength, pull force, position, and buffer composition were studied for effective bead operations. Dilution-based washing of magnetic beads was demonstrated by immobilizing the magnetic beads using a permanent magnet and splitting the excess supernatant using electrowetting. Almost 100% bead retention was achieved after 7776-fold dilution-based washing of the supernatant. Efficient resuspension of magnetic beads was achieved by transporting a droplet with magnetic beads across five electrodes on the platform and exploiting the flow patterns within the droplet to resuspend the beads. All the magnetic-bead droplet operations were integrated together to generate standard curves for sandwich heterogeneous immunoassays on human insulin and interleukin-6 (IL-6) with a total time to result of 7 min for each assay.

347 citations