Other affiliations: Indian Institute of Technology Delhi
Bio: Vinita Krishna is an academic researcher from Shiv Nadar University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Open innovation & Intellectual property. The author has an hindex of 2, co-authored 7 publications receiving 13 citations. Previous affiliations of Vinita Krishna include Indian Institute of Technology Delhi.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors studied the relationship between patent renewal and patent commercialization in developing countries and found that patent renewal is the top most barrier to commercialization and no potential for technology is the main reason for non-renewal of patents.
Abstract: Research on pharmaceuticals has mainly focused on the needs of developed countries while the scenario in developing countries is unclear. This industry is knowledge-intensive and unusually sensitive to intellectual property rights (IPRs).Patents play very important role in their business and this entails good management practices by the firms from various aspects of patent management. Two dimensions viz. commercialization of patents and renewal of patents are studied in this paper. There is dearth of in-depth research studies on these dimensions of patent management in India. A random sample of 300 granted pharmaceutical patents for patent renewal and another sample of 300 patents selected through purposive sampling for patent commercialization have been drawn from the population of granted pharmaceutical patents by the Indian Patent Office between 2005-06 and 2013-14. The information on working of patents has been taken from Form-27 submitted by the patent assignees of the selected patents. Some of the main findings are: a weak but positive and significant correlation between patent renewal & commercialization, blocking motive is the top most barrier to commercialization, direct contact with the partners is the chief mode of commercialization, no potential for technology is the main reason for non-renewal of patents, and enhancement of reputation is the main reason for renewal.
TL;DR: In this paper, the renewal of patents in the pharma sector in India was studied and a unique approach of studying both active and ceased patents of non-resident applicants in India, with the aid of descriptive methods and statistical tools as SPSS following trends, was found.
Abstract: Managing patents is a core issue in the intellectual property management (IPM) of the firms. It entails two important activities: the patenting of new innovations and the renewal of patents. With the research on renewal data gaining momentum, this paper tries to study the renewal of patents in the pharma sector in India. Adopting a unique approach of studying both active and ceased patents of non-resident applicants in India, with the aid of descriptive methods and statistical tools as SPSS following trends, has been found. Business firms are the dominant patentees and single inventorship an emerging trend in India. While renewal patterns are quite applicant category specific, grant period is independent of the applicant category. In case of the patents category (ceased or active), maintenance duration is independent of the number of inventors but effective life of the patents varies with category of patents. The higher propensity to patent and maintenance show linkage with specific technology fields and the portfolio size.
01 Aug 2010
TL;DR: In this article, the authors investigate the paradox that arises when firms simultaneously share and protect their knowledge in an alliance with other organizations and identify which strategies can be developed to cope with this tension.
Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the paradox that arises when firms simultaneously share and protect their knowledge in an alliance with other organizations. The goal of this paper therefore is to explore this tension field in such a coupled open innovation process and to identify which strategies can be developed to cope with this tension.Design/methodology/approach – The study was initially guided by a literature review and exploratory interviews, and it ultimately develops an inductive framework based on a multiple case study approach. The paper presents eight cases of a focal firm involved in a particular R&D collaboration. The case studies are based on a variety of data sources, including a number of semi‐structured interviews.Findings – This paper unravels the tension field of knowledge sharing and protection in R&D collaborations, with the knowledge characteristics at the core and with the knowledge embodiment and relational dimension as mediating factors. These forces are in t...
TL;DR: In this article, the authors assessed the effectiveness of smallholder farmers' knowledge and aptitude to read weather signs for informed decisions on their daily and seasonal activities, based on eight focus group discussions and a survey of 597 farming households in seven agro-ecological basins on the Bamenda Highlands of Cameroon.
Abstract: Anticipating seasonal and shorter time scale dynamics to farming practices is primordial for indigenous farmers’ resilience under extreme environmental conditions, where climate change is a menace to agro-hydro-ecological systems. This paper assesses the effectiveness of indigenous farmers’ knowledge and aptitude to read weather signs for informed decisions on their daily and seasonal activities. Such climate-proof development is anchored on indigenous people’s knowledge and perceptions in circumstances where the dearth of scientific evidence or information exists as in Cameroon. The study is based on eight focus group discussions and a survey of 597 farming households in seven agro-ecological basins on the Bui Plateau of the Bamenda Highlands. The results indicate that indigenous smallholder farmers value their ability to accurately observe and anticipate local conditions in various ways to serve their local realities more aptly than outside forecasts. Such local knowledge should thus exercise a complementary role weave in a local climate information understanding system that replicates ecological variability.
TL;DR: Noncommunicable diseases burden in tribal population in India is as high as in the general population, and effective strategies to prevent this have to be devised.
Abstract: Background: The major focus of studies related to health among tribes in India has been on malnutrition. The world is in the stage of epidemiological transition, and noncommunicable diseases are overtaking the communicable diseases not only in general but also among the tribal population. Objectives: A cross-sectional study was conducted to find out the prevalence of diabetes and hypertension among the tribal population. Methodology: A house-to-house survey using a semi-structured questionnaire was conducted in three randomly selected tribal villages. Participants aged 18 and above from both genders were included. Blood pressure was recorded and random blood sugar was estimated for all the participants. Chi-square test was used to study association for categorical variables and one-way ANOVA and Student's t-test were used to study association for continuous variables. A P
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors explored adaptation strategies and the associated maladaptation outcomes of smallholder farmers in rural Ghana and found that the major adaptation strategies of farmers included crop and livelihood diversification, agrochemicals application, and reduction in the number and size of meals.
Abstract: Adaptation has become crucial in developing economies due to climate change impact, especially on agriculture, which is the backbone of many economies and the main source of livelihoods and food security. Some adaptation strategies applied in the context of developing countries, however, produce maladaptive outcomes, which are usually ignored in the planning phase of adaptation policies and programmes. This mixed methods study therefore explores adaptation strategies and the associated maladaptation outcomes of smallholder farmers in rural Ghana. The study administered questionnaire survey to 378 farmers and 41 key informants were interviewed. The major adaptation strategies of farmers included crop and livelihood diversification, agrochemicals application, and reduction in the number and size of meals. However, farmers’ adaptation strategies result in maladaptation outcomes through the release of greenhouse gases, environmental degradation, and contamination of water bodies as well as resource conflicts and increasing pressure on lands, among others, which affect their capacity to respond to future climate change. Adaptation policy makers and development practitioners should prioritize the minimization of maladaptation outcomes through intensive review and modification of programmes prior to their implementation and extensive education on best practices among smallholder farmers.
TL;DR: It is found that growth in the pharmaceutical and biotech sectors in India has been characterized by multiple handicaps and oligopoly, with the nature of expansion not having relevance for the disease profiles in India.
Abstract: To reveal inequity in health in India. The global paradigm of the knowledge economy propounds that growth and equity will occur if there is a free-market economy without state intervention and if patents are provided as incentives for innovation. In this paper, we explore the veracity of this thesis by investigating growth in the pharmaceutical and biotech sectors in India, and by looking at equity issues through the lens of gender health and health costs for poor consumers. We used data from current publications to support this thesis. We found that growth has been characterized by multiple handicaps and oligopoly, with the nature of expansion not having relevance for the disease profiles in India. The scenario of gender health and health costs of the poor is grim due to state retrenchment and neglect of the provision of public good, such as in health matters. One can conclude that equity has not occurred under a growing pharmaceutical sector. This finding has huge implications for public policy in India and other emerging nations.