Other affiliations: National Physical Laboratory, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, Carleton University ...read more
Bio: Vinod Kumar is an academic researcher from Cranfield University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Medicine & Genome-wide association study. The author has an hindex of 77, co-authored 815 publications receiving 26882 citations. Previous affiliations of Vinod Kumar include National Physical Laboratory & Indian Council of Agricultural Research.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The identification of glycolysis as a fundamental process in trained immunity further highlights a key regulatory role for metabolism in innate host defense and defines a potential therapeutic target in both infectious and inflammatory diseases.
Abstract: Epigenetic reprogramming of myeloid cells, also known as trained immunity, confers nonspecific protection from secondary infections. Using histone modification profiles of human monocytes trained with the Candida albicans cell wall constituent β-glucan, together with a genome-wide transcriptome, we identified the induced expression of genes involved in glucose metabolism. Trained monocytes display high glucose consumption, high lactate production, and a high ratio of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) to its reduced form (NADH), reflecting a shift in metabolism with an increase in glycolysis dependent on the activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) through a dectin-1-Akt-HIF-1α (hypoxia-inducible factor-1α) pathway. Inhibition of Akt, mTOR, or HIF-1α blocked monocyte induction of trained immunity, whereas the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase activator metformin inhibited the innate immune response to fungal infection. Mice with a myeloid cell-specific defect in HIF-1α were unable to mount trained immunity against bacterial sepsis. Our results indicate that induction of aerobic glycolysis through an Akt-mTOR-HIF-1α pathway represents the metabolic basis of trained immunity.
TL;DR: The epigenetic and transcriptional programs of monocyte differentiation to macrophages that distinguish tolerant and trained macrophage phenotypes are uncovered, providing a resource to further understand and manipulate immune-mediated responses.
Abstract: Monocyte differentiation into macrophages represents a cornerstone process for host defense. Concomitantly, immunological imprinting of either tolerance or trained immunity determines the functional fate of macrophages and susceptibility to secondary infections. We characterized the transcriptomes and epigenomes in four primary cell types: monocytes and in vitro-differentiated naive, tolerized, and trained macrophages. Inflammatory and metabolic pathways were modulated in macrophages, including decreased inflammasome activation, and we identified pathways functionally implicated in trained immunity. β-glucan training elicits an exclusive epigenetic signature, revealing a complex network of enhancers and promoters. Analysis of transcription factor motifs in deoxyribonuclease I hypersensitive sites at cell-type-specific epigenetic loci unveiled differentiation and treatment-specific repertoires. Altogether, we provide a resource to understand the epigenetic changes that underlie innate immunity in humans.
TL;DR: BCG vaccination induced genome-wide epigenetic reprograming of monocytes and protected against experimental infection with an attenuated yellow fever virus vaccine strain, with a key role for IL-1β as a mediator of trained immunity responses.
Abstract: The tuberculosis vaccine bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) has heterologous beneficial effects against non-related infections. The basis of these effects has been poorly explored in humans. In a randomized placebo-controlled human challenge study, we found that BCG vaccination induced genome-wide epigenetic reprograming of monocytes and protected against experimental infection with an attenuated yellow fever virus vaccine strain. Epigenetic reprogramming was accompanied by functional changes indicative of trained immunity. Reduction of viremia was highly correlated with the upregulation of IL-1β, a heterologous cytokine associated with the induction of trained immunity, but not with the specific IFNγ response. The importance of IL-1β for the induction of trained immunity was validated through genetic, epigenetic, and immunological studies. In conclusion, BCG induces epigenetic reprogramming in human monocytes in vivo, followed by functional reprogramming and protection against non-related viral infections, with a key role for IL-1β as a mediator of trained immunity responses.
TL;DR: In the post‐absorptive state, MPS is dose dependant on intensity rising to a plateau at 60–90% 1 repetition maximum (1 RM), and older men show anabolic resistance of signalling and MPS to resistance exercise.
Abstract: We investigated how myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS) and muscle anabolic signalling were affected by resistance exercise at 20–90% of 1 repetition maximum (1 RM) in two groups (25 each) of post-absorptive, healthy, young (24 ± 6 years) and old (70 ± 5 years) men with identical body mass indices (24 ± 2 kg m−2). We hypothesized that, in response to exercise, anabolic signalling molecule phosphorylation and MPS would be modified in a dose-dependant fashion, but to a lesser extent in older men. Vastus lateralis muscle was sampled before, immediately after, and 1, 2 and 4 h post-exercise. MPS was measured by incorporation of [1,2-13C] leucine (gas chromatography–combustion–mass spectrometry using plasma [1,2-13C]α-ketoisocaparoate as surrogate precursor); the phosphorylation of p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70s6K) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4EBP1) was measured using Western analysis with anti-phosphoantibodies. In each group, there was a sigmoidal dose–response relationship between MPS at 1–2 h post-exercise and exercise intensity, which was blunted (P < 0.05) in the older men. At all intensities, MPS fell in both groups to near-basal values by 2–4 h post-exercise. The phosphorylation of p70s6K and 4EBP1 at 60–90% 1 RM was blunted in older men. At 1 h post-exercise at 60–90% 1 RM, p70s6K phosphorylation predicted the rate of MPS at 1–2 h post-exercise in the young but not in the old. The results suggest that in the post-absorptive state: (i) MPS is dose dependant on intensity rising to a plateau at 60–90% 1 RM; (ii) older men show anabolic resistance of signalling and MPS to resistance exercise.
University of Massachusetts Medical School1, University Hospital Bonn2, University of Bonn3, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich4, Broad Institute5, Radboud University Nijmegen6, University Medical Center Groningen7, Texas A&M University8, Harvard University9, Norwegian University of Science and Technology10, German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases11
TL;DR: NLRP3 mediates trained immunity following WD and could thereby mediate the potentially deleterious effects of trained immunity in inflammatory diseases.
Abstract: Long-term epigenetic reprogramming of innate immune cells in response to microbes, also termed "trained immunity,'' causes prolonged altered cellular functionality to protect from secondary infections. Here, we investigated whether sterile triggers of inflammation induce trained immunity and thereby influence innate immune responses. Western diet (WD) feeding of Ldlr(-/-) mice induced systemic inflammation, which was undetectable in serum soon after mice were shifted back to a chow diet (CD). In contrast, myeloid cell responses toward innate stimuli remained broadly augmented. WD-induced transcriptomic and epigenomic reprogramming of myeloid progenitor cells led to increased proliferation and enhanced innate immune responses. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis in human monocytes trained with oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) suggested inflammasome-mediated trained immunity. Consistently, Nlrp3(-/-)/Ldlr(-/-) mice lacked WD-induced systemic inflammation, myeloidprogenitor proliferation, and re-programming. Hence, NLRP3 mediates trained immunity following WD and could thereby mediate the potentially deleterious effects of trained immunity in inflammatory diseases.
TL;DR: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one, which seems an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality.
Abstract: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one. I remember first hearing about it at school. It seemed an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality. Usually familiarity dulls this sense of the bizarre, but in the case of i it was the reverse: over the years the sense of its surreal nature intensified. It seemed that it was impossible to write mathematics that described the real world in …
28 Jul 2005
TL;DR: This book by a teacher of statistics (as well as a consultant for "experimenters") is a comprehensive study of the philosophical background for the statistical design of experiment.
Abstract: THE DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF EXPERIMENTS. By Oscar Kempthorne. New York, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1952. 631 pp. $8.50. This book by a teacher of statistics (as well as a consultant for \"experimenters\") is a comprehensive study of the philosophical background for the statistical design of experiment. It is necessary to have some facility with algebraic notation and manipulation to be able to use the volume intelligently. The problems are presented from the theoretical point of view, without such practical examples as would be helpful for those not acquainted with mathematics. The mathematical justification for the techniques is given. As a somewhat advanced treatment of the design and analysis of experiments, this volume will be interesting and helpful for many who approach statistics theoretically as well as practically. With emphasis on the \"why,\" and with description given broadly, the author relates the subject matter to the general theory of statistics and to the general problem of experimental inference. MARGARET J. ROBERTSON
01 Jan 2014
TL;DR: These standards of care are intended to provide clinicians, patients, researchers, payors, and other interested individuals with the components of diabetes care, treatment goals, and tools to evaluate the quality of care.
Abstract: XI. STRATEGIES FOR IMPROVING DIABETES CARE D iabetes is a chronic illness that requires continuing medical care and patient self-management education to prevent acute complications and to reduce the risk of long-term complications. Diabetes care is complex and requires that many issues, beyond glycemic control, be addressed. A large body of evidence exists that supports a range of interventions to improve diabetes outcomes. These standards of care are intended to provide clinicians, patients, researchers, payors, and other interested individuals with the components of diabetes care, treatment goals, and tools to evaluate the quality of care. While individual preferences, comorbidities, and other patient factors may require modification of goals, targets that are desirable for most patients with diabetes are provided. These standards are not intended to preclude more extensive evaluation and management of the patient by other specialists as needed. For more detailed information, refer to Bode (Ed.): Medical Management of Type 1 Diabetes (1), Burant (Ed): Medical Management of Type 2 Diabetes (2), and Klingensmith (Ed): Intensive Diabetes Management (3). The recommendations included are diagnostic and therapeutic actions that are known or believed to favorably affect health outcomes of patients with diabetes. A grading system (Table 1), developed by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and modeled after existing methods, was utilized to clarify and codify the evidence that forms the basis for the recommendations. The level of evidence that supports each recommendation is listed after each recommendation using the letters A, B, C, or E.