Virendra N. Mahajan
Bio: Virendra N. Mahajan is an academic researcher. The author has an hindex of 1, co-authored 1 publications receiving 178 citations.
01 Jul 1991
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors provide a clear, concise, and consistent exposition of what aberrations are, how they arise in optical imaging systems, and how they affect the quality of images formed by them.
Abstract: This book provides a clear, concise, and consistent exposition of what aberrations are, how they arise in optical imaging systems, and how they affect the quality of images formed by them. The emphasis of the book is on physical insight, problem solving, and numerical results, and the text is intended for engineers and scientists who have a need and a desire for a deeper and better understanding of aberrations and Their role in optical imaging and wave propagation.
TL;DR: It is concluded that objective methods of refraction based on wavefront aberration maps can accurately predict the results of subjective refraction and may be more precise and wavefront methods may become the new gold standard for specifying conventional and/or optimal corrections of refractive errors.
Abstract: We determined the accuracy and precision of 33 objective methods for predicting the results of conventional, sphero-cylindrical refraction from wavefront aberrations in a large population of 200 eyes. Accuracy for predicting defocus (as specified by the population mean error of prediction) varied from -0.50 D to +0.25 D across methods. Precision of these estimates (as specified by 95% limits of agreement) ranged from 0.5 to 1.0 D. All methods except one accurately predicted astigmatism to within +/-1/8D. Precision of astigmatism predictions was typically better than precision for predicting defocus and many methods were better than 0.5D. Paraxial curvature matching of the wavefront aberration map was the most accurate method for determining the spherical equivalent error whereas least-squares fitting of the wavefront was one of the least accurate methods. We argue that this result was obtained because curvature matching is a biased method that successfully predicts the biased endpoint stipulated by conventional refractions. Five methods emerged as reasonably accurate and among the most precise. Three of these were based on pupil plane metrics and two were based on image plane metrics. We argue that the accuracy of all methods might be improved by correcting for the systematic bias reported in this study. However, caution is advised because some tasks, including conventional refraction of defocus, require a biased metric whereas other tasks, such as refraction of astigmatism, are unbiased. We conclude that objective methods of refraction based on wavefront aberration maps can accurately predict the results of subjective refraction and may be more precise. If objective refractions are more precise than subjective refractions, then wavefront methods may become the new gold standard for specifying conventional and/or optimal corrections of refractive errors.
TL;DR: An ultra-low-cost origami-based approach for large-scale manufacturing of microscopes, specifically demonstrating brightfield, darkfield, and fluorescence microscopes that can survive harsh field conditions while providing a diversity of imaging capabilities.
Abstract: Here we describe an ultra-low-cost origami-based approach for large-scale manufacturing of microscopes, specifically demonstrating brightfield, darkfield, and fluorescence microscopes. Merging principles of optical design with origami enables high-volume fabrication of microscopes from 2D media. Flexure mechanisms created via folding enable a flat compact design. Structural loops in folded paper provide kinematic constraints as a means for passive self-alignment. This light, rugged instrument can survive harsh field conditions while providing a diversity of imaging capabilities, thus serving wide-ranging applications for cost-effective, portable microscopes in science and education.
TL;DR: The procedure permits estimation of the corneal wave aberration from videokeratoscopic data with an accuracy of 0.05-0.2 microm, rendering the method adequate for many applications.
Abstract: A procedure to calculate the wave aberration of the human cornea from its surface shape measured by videokeratography is presented. The wave aberration was calculated as the difference in optical path between the marginal rays and the chief ray refracted at the surface, for both on- and off-axis objects. The corneal shape elevation map was obtained from videokeratography and fitted to a Zernike polynomial expansion through a Gram–Schmidt orthogonalization. The wave aberration was obtained also as a Zernike polynomial representation. The accuracy of the procedure was analyzed. For calibrated reference surface elevations, a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 1 to 2 μm for an aperture 4–6 mm in diameter was obtained, and the RMSE associated with the experimental errors and with the fitting method was 0.2 μm. The procedure permits estimation of the corneal wave aberration from videokeratoscopic data with an accuracy of 0.05–0.2 μm for a pupil 4–6 mm in diameter, rendering the method adequate for many applications.
TL;DR: A reduced-eye model of myopia assuming fixed optical parameters and variable axial length is not tenable because it is found that the optical system of the eye is uncorrelated with the degree of ametropia.
Abstract: Purpose. To examine the relationship between ametropia and optical aberrations in a population of 200 normal human eyes with refractive errors spanning the range from +5.00 to −10.00 D. Methods. Using a reduced-eye model of ametropia, we tested the hypothesis that the optical system of the eye is uncorrelated with the degree of ametropia. These predictions were evaluated experimentally with a Shack-Hartmann aberrometer that measured the monochromatic aberrations across the central 6 mm of the dilated pupil in well-corrected, cyclopleged eyes. Results. Optical theory predicted, and control experiments on a model eye verified, that Shack-Hartmann measurements of spherical aberration will vary with axial elongation of the eye even if the dioptric components of the eye are fixed. Contrary to these predictions, spherical aberration was not significantly different from emmetropic eyes. Root mean square of third-order aberrations, fourth-order aberrations, and total higher aberrations (third to 10th) in myopic and hyperopic eyes were also uncorrelated with refractive error. Astigmatic eyes tended to have larger total higher-order aberrations than nonastigmatic eyes. Conclusions. We conclude that a reduced-eye model of myopia assuming fixed optical parameters and variable axial length is not tenable.
TL;DR: This article estimates per-channel, spatially varying point spread functions, and performs nonblind deconvolution with a novel cross-channel term that is designed to specifically eliminate color fringing.
Abstract: Modern imaging optics are highly complex systems consisting of up to two dozen individual optical elements. This complexity is required in order to compensate for the geometric and chromatic aberrations of a single lens, including geometric distortion, field curvature, wavelength-dependent blur, and color fringing.In this article, we propose a set of computational photography techniques that remove these artifacts, and thus allow for postcapture correction of images captured through uncompensated, simple optics which are lighter and significantly less expensive. Specifically, we estimate per-channel, spatially varying point spread functions, and perform nonblind deconvolution with a novel cross-channel term that is designed to specifically eliminate color fringing.