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Visvanathan Ramesh

Bio: Visvanathan Ramesh is an academic researcher from Goethe University Frankfurt. The author has contributed to research in topics: Mean-shift & Image segmentation. The author has an hindex of 41, co-authored 138 publications receiving 14594 citations. Previous affiliations of Visvanathan Ramesh include Princeton University & Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A new approach toward target representation and localization, the central component in visual tracking of nonrigid objects, is proposed, which employs a metric derived from the Bhattacharyya coefficient as similarity measure, and uses the mean shift procedure to perform the optimization.
Abstract: A new approach toward target representation and localization, the central component in visual tracking of nonrigid objects, is proposed. The feature histogram-based target representations are regularized by spatial masking with an isotropic kernel. The masking induces spatially-smooth similarity functions suitable for gradient-based optimization, hence, the target localization problem can be formulated using the basin of attraction of the local maxima. We employ a metric derived from the Bhattacharyya coefficient as similarity measure, and use the mean shift procedure to perform the optimization. In the presented tracking examples, the new method successfully coped with camera motion, partial occlusions, clutter, and target scale variations. Integration with motion filters and data association techniques is also discussed. We describe only a few of the potential applications: exploitation of background information, Kalman tracking using motion models, and face tracking.

4,996 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
14 Feb 2000
TL;DR: The theoretical analysis of the approach shows that it relates to the Bayesian framework while providing a practical, fast and efficient solution for real time tracking of non-rigid objects seen from a moving camera.
Abstract: A new method for real time tracking of non-rigid objects seen from a moving camera is proposed. The central computational module is based on the mean shift iterations and finds the most probable target position in the current frame. The dissimilarity between the target model (its color distribution) and the target candidates is expressed by a metric derived from the Bhattacharyya coefficient. The theoretical analysis of the approach shows that it relates to the Bayesian framework while providing a practical, fast and efficient solution. The capability of the tracker to handle in real time partial occlusions, significant clutter, and target scale variations, is demonstrated for several image sequences.

3,368 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
13 Oct 2003
TL;DR: An on-line auto-regressive model to capture and predict the behavior of dynamic scenes where the assumption of a static background is not valid and a new metric that is based on a state-driven comparison between the prediction and the actual frame is introduced.
Abstract: Background modeling and subtraction is a core component in motion analysis. The central idea behind such module is to create a probabilistic representation of the static scene that is compared with the current input to perform subtraction. Such approach is efficient when the scene to be modeled refers to a static structure with limited perturbation. In this paper, we address the problem of modeling dynamic scenes where the assumption of a static background is not valid. Waving trees, beaches, escalators, natural scenes with rain or snow are examples. Inspired by the work proposed by Doretto et al. (2003), we propose an on-line auto-regressive model to capture and predict the behavior of such scenes. Towards detection of events we introduce a new metric that is based on a state-driven comparison between the prediction and the actual frame. Promising results demonstrate the potentials of the proposed framework.

448 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
Claus Bahlmann1, Ying Zhu1, Visvanathan Ramesh1, M. Pellkofer2, T. Koehler2 
06 Jun 2005
TL;DR: This paper describes a computer vision based system for real-time robust traffic sign detection, tracking, and recognition that offers a generic, joint modeling of color and shape information without the need of tuning free parameters.
Abstract: This paper describes a computer vision based system for real-time robust traffic sign detection, tracking, and recognition. Such a framework is of major interest for driver assistance in an intelligent automotive cockpit environment. The proposed approach consists of two components. First, signs are detected using a set of Haar wavelet features obtained from AdaBoost training. Compared to previously published approaches, our solution offers a generic, joint modeling of color and shape information without the need of tuning free parameters. Once detected, objects are efficiently tracked within a temporal information propagation framework. Second, classification is performed using Bayesian generative modeling. Making use of the tracking information, hypotheses are fused over multiple frames. Experiments show high detection and recognition accuracy and a frame rate of approximately 10 frames per second on a standard PC.

447 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
07 Jul 2001
TL;DR: In this article, a nonparametric and semiparametric scale selection method is proposed for the scale selection problem in computer vision, where the local scale of the underlying density is taken as the bandwidth which maximizes the magnitude of the normalized mean shift vector.
Abstract: We present two solutions for the scale selection problem in computer vision. The first one is completely nonparametric and is based on the the adaptive estimation of the normalized density gradient. Employing the sample point estimator, we define the Variable Bandwidth Mean Shift, prove its convergence, and show its superiority over the fixed bandwidth procedure. The second technique has a semiparametric nature and imposes a local structure on the data to extract reliable scale information. The local scale of the underlying density is taken as the bandwidth which maximizes the magnitude of the normalized mean shift vector. Both estimators provide practical tools for autonomous image and quasi real-time video analysis and several examples are shown to illustrate their effectiveness.

402 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Machine learning addresses many of the same research questions as the fields of statistics, data mining, and psychology, but with differences of emphasis.
Abstract: Machine Learning is the study of methods for programming computers to learn. Computers are applied to a wide range of tasks, and for most of these it is relatively easy for programmers to design and implement the necessary software. However, there are many tasks for which this is difficult or impossible. These can be divided into four general categories. First, there are problems for which there exist no human experts. For example, in modern automated manufacturing facilities, there is a need to predict machine failures before they occur by analyzing sensor readings. Because the machines are new, there are no human experts who can be interviewed by a programmer to provide the knowledge necessary to build a computer system. A machine learning system can study recorded data and subsequent machine failures and learn prediction rules. Second, there are problems where human experts exist, but where they are unable to explain their expertise. This is the case in many perceptual tasks, such as speech recognition, hand-writing recognition, and natural language understanding. Virtually all humans exhibit expert-level abilities on these tasks, but none of them can describe the detailed steps that they follow as they perform them. Fortunately, humans can provide machines with examples of the inputs and correct outputs for these tasks, so machine learning algorithms can learn to map the inputs to the outputs. Third, there are problems where phenomena are changing rapidly. In finance, for example, people would like to predict the future behavior of the stock market, of consumer purchases, or of exchange rates. These behaviors change frequently, so that even if a programmer could construct a good predictive computer program, it would need to be rewritten frequently. A learning program can relieve the programmer of this burden by constantly modifying and tuning a set of learned prediction rules. Fourth, there are applications that need to be customized for each computer user separately. Consider, for example, a program to filter unwanted electronic mail messages. Different users will need different filters. It is unreasonable to expect each user to program his or her own rules, and it is infeasible to provide every user with a software engineer to keep the rules up-to-date. A machine learning system can learn which mail messages the user rejects and maintain the filtering rules automatically. Machine learning addresses many of the same research questions as the fields of statistics, data mining, and psychology, but with differences of emphasis. Statistics focuses on understanding the phenomena that have generated the data, often with the goal of testing different hypotheses about those phenomena. Data mining seeks to find patterns in the data that are understandable by people. Psychological studies of human learning aspire to understand the mechanisms underlying the various learning behaviors exhibited by people (concept learning, skill acquisition, strategy change, etc.).

13,246 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is proved the convergence of a recursive mean shift procedure to the nearest stationary point of the underlying density function and, thus, its utility in detecting the modes of the density.
Abstract: A general non-parametric technique is proposed for the analysis of a complex multimodal feature space and to delineate arbitrarily shaped clusters in it. The basic computational module of the technique is an old pattern recognition procedure: the mean shift. For discrete data, we prove the convergence of a recursive mean shift procedure to the nearest stationary point of the underlying density function and, thus, its utility in detecting the modes of the density. The relation of the mean shift procedure to the Nadaraya-Watson estimator from kernel regression and the robust M-estimators; of location is also established. Algorithms for two low-level vision tasks discontinuity-preserving smoothing and image segmentation - are described as applications. In these algorithms, the only user-set parameter is the resolution of the analysis, and either gray-level or color images are accepted as input. Extensive experimental results illustrate their excellent performance.

11,727 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The goal of this article is to review the state-of-the-art tracking methods, classify them into different categories, and identify new trends to discuss the important issues related to tracking including the use of appropriate image features, selection of motion models, and detection of objects.
Abstract: The goal of this article is to review the state-of-the-art tracking methods, classify them into different categories, and identify new trends. Object tracking, in general, is a challenging problem. Difficulties in tracking objects can arise due to abrupt object motion, changing appearance patterns of both the object and the scene, nonrigid object structures, object-to-object and object-to-scene occlusions, and camera motion. Tracking is usually performed in the context of higher-level applications that require the location and/or shape of the object in every frame. Typically, assumptions are made to constrain the tracking problem in the context of a particular application. In this survey, we categorize the tracking methods on the basis of the object and motion representations used, provide detailed descriptions of representative methods in each category, and examine their pros and cons. Moreover, we discuss the important issues related to tracking including the use of appropriate image features, selection of motion models, and detection of objects.

5,318 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A new approach toward target representation and localization, the central component in visual tracking of nonrigid objects, is proposed, which employs a metric derived from the Bhattacharyya coefficient as similarity measure, and uses the mean shift procedure to perform the optimization.
Abstract: A new approach toward target representation and localization, the central component in visual tracking of nonrigid objects, is proposed. The feature histogram-based target representations are regularized by spatial masking with an isotropic kernel. The masking induces spatially-smooth similarity functions suitable for gradient-based optimization, hence, the target localization problem can be formulated using the basin of attraction of the local maxima. We employ a metric derived from the Bhattacharyya coefficient as similarity measure, and use the mean shift procedure to perform the optimization. In the presented tracking examples, the new method successfully coped with camera motion, partial occlusions, clutter, and target scale variations. Integration with motion filters and data association techniques is also discussed. We describe only a few of the potential applications: exploitation of background information, Kalman tracking using motion models, and face tracking.

4,996 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper compares the running times of several standard algorithms, as well as a new algorithm that is recently developed that works several times faster than any of the other methods, making near real-time performance possible.
Abstract: Minimum cut/maximum flow algorithms on graphs have emerged as an increasingly useful tool for exactor approximate energy minimization in low-level vision. The combinatorial optimization literature provides many min-cut/max-flow algorithms with different polynomial time complexity. Their practical efficiency, however, has to date been studied mainly outside the scope of computer vision. The goal of this paper is to provide an experimental comparison of the efficiency of min-cut/max flow algorithms for applications in vision. We compare the running times of several standard algorithms, as well as a new algorithm that we have recently developed. The algorithms we study include both Goldberg-Tarjan style "push -relabel" methods and algorithms based on Ford-Fulkerson style "augmenting paths." We benchmark these algorithms on a number of typical graphs in the contexts of image restoration, stereo, and segmentation. In many cases, our new algorithm works several times faster than any of the other methods, making near real-time performance possible. An implementation of our max-flow/min-cut algorithm is available upon request for research purposes.

4,463 citations