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Vitaly A. Eremenko

Bio: Vitaly A. Eremenko is an academic researcher from International Council for the Exploration of the Sea. The author has contributed to research in topics: Risk assessment & Risk management. The author has an hindex of 2, co-authored 17 publications receiving 14 citations.

Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: How the people in Kiev, Ukraine, and in particular one individual in that city, Professor Vitaly Eremenko, became aware of the threat before the official announcement and the steps he took to mitigate potential impacts to his immediate family are described.
Abstract: The Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident occurred in 1986. The plume from the explosions and fires was highly radioactive and resulted in very high exposure levels in the surrounding regions. This paper describes how the people in Kiev, Ukraine, a city 120 km (90 miles) south of Chernobyl, and in particular one individual in that city, Professor Vitaly Eremenko, became aware of the threat before the official announcement and the steps he took to mitigate potential impacts to his immediate family. The combination of being informed and using available resources led to greatly reduced consequences for his family and, in particular, his newborn granddaughter. He notes how quickly word of the some aspects of the hazard spread in the city and how other aspects appear to not have been understood. Although these events are being recalled as the 20 anniversary of the terrible event approaches, the lessons are still pertinent today. Threats of possible terrorist use of radiation dispersal devices makes knowledge of effective individual actions for self-protection from radiation exposures a topic of current interest.

4 citations

Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 2003
TL;DR: The radiation legacy left from nuclear weapons production is one of the forces compelling countries ofthe former Soviet Union to undertake risk assessment and risk management as mentioned in this paper, and this legacy is also compelling them to understand and manage risk perceptions.
Abstract: The radiation legacy left from nuclear weapons production is one of the forces compelling countries ofthe former Soviet Union to undertake risk assessment and risk management. This legacy is also compelling them to understand and manage risk perceptions. Operations ofthe nuclear production complex ofthe former Soviet Union resulted in the accumulation ofabout 500 million cubic meters ofradioactive waste with an aggregate radioactivity about 1. 7 billion curies. This chapter describes, based on published information, the structure, composition, and arrangement ofthat production complex; sites ofnuclear weapon tests; locations for storage and disposal ofradioactive waste; and territories exposed to radioactive contamination as a result ofnominal activity and radiation accidents. As the author notes, iflarge affected areas are considered, then the historical radiation fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapon testing exceeds in magnitude many ofthe sources discussed in this chapter.

3 citations

Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 2003
TL;DR: In this article, the authors examine the major environmental releases that resulted from past operation of Cold War-related facilities for the manufacture of nuclear weapons, and the resultant radiation dose to individuals living near these facilities is called environmental dose reconstruction.
Abstract: Another way to look at Cold War legacies is to examine the major environmental releases that resulted from past operation of Cold War-related facilities for the manufacture of nuclear weapons. Examining these historical releases and the resultant radiation dose to individuals living near these facilities is called environmental dose reconstruction. Dose reconstructions have been performed or are underway at most large Cold War installations in the United States such as the Hanford facility; several are also underway in other countries such as at the Mayak facility in Russia. The efforts in the United States are mostly based on historical operating records and current conditions which are used to estimate environmental releases transport and human exposure. The Russian efforts are largely based on environmental measurements and measurements of human subjects; environmental transport modelling when conducted is used to organize and validate the measurements.

2 citations

Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 2003
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors describe the efforts of the U.S. Army to remediate the legacy of chemical weapons stored in the United States and use a risk management approach to control the process.
Abstract: Although many studies could benefit from the aspects of risk assessment described in this book to clean up Cold War legacies only a few studies have integrated risk management and risk assessment well. This chapter describes one such study—efforts of the U.S. Army to remediate the legacy of chemical weapons stored in the United States. This effort addressed the human risk associated with that storage developed and implemented a process to destroy the chemical weapon energetics and agent analysed the facility and human risk associated with the destruction process and used a risk management approach to control the process. The risk analysis is an accident analysis. Risk from routine operations and mild accidents is examined in other studies and is small compared with the risk of more severe accidents.

1 citations

01 Jul 2007
TL;DR: In this paper, a case-study analysis was conducted for the proposed facility to provide insights into potential population health risks, and the results show the value of conducting a population risk assessment in addition to a facility-oriented PRA as a means of better defining the potential impacts.
Abstract: Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Optimization of safety related decisions by local authorities could be improved using information on potential risks to a regional population. A joint Russia-US effort in 2001-2002 modeled potential population health risks for a proposed nuclear waste storage facility in northern Russia. Conducting such an assessment in addition to the standard PRA is proposed as an innovation in Russia aimed at better meeting the needs of local decision makers. This case-study analysis was conducted for the proposed facility to provide insights into potential population health risks. In the case study results, the background population risks from radiation accident exposures were very low compared to risks from chemical background exposures - an unexpected outcome for those that perceive any nuclear facility as very hazardous to the local population. The paper notes that rather than requiring a proposed low-risk facility for hazardous materials be made even safer, these results give the local authority the option of proposing a trade-off of having a major unrelated regional risks mitigated. The results show the value of conducting a population risk assessment in addition to a facility-oriented PRA as a means of better defining the potential impacts. more » (authors) « less

1 citations


Cited by
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01 Oct 1989
TL;DR: The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project (HEDR) as mentioned in this paper is a multi-year effort to estimate radiation doses that people could have received since 1944 from nuclear operations at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site.
Abstract: In a multi year effort that began in 1988, researchers at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory are estimating radiation doses that people could have received since 1944 from nuclear operations at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Known as the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project, the work has required the development of new methods and tools for dealing with unique technical and communication challenges. Scientists are doing probabilistic dose assessment -- rather than the more typical deterministic approach -- to generate dose distributions rather than single-point estimates. Uncertainties in input parameters are reflected in the dose results. Sensitivity analyses are used to optimize project resources in defining the project's scope. An independent technical steering panel directs and approves the work in a public forum. 3 figs.

30 citations

ReportDOI
01 Jul 2006
TL;DR: A review of the current status of dry deposition formulations used in these atmospheric dispersion models was conducted in this paper, where the formulations for dry deposition of particulate materials from am event such as a radiological attack involving a Radiological Detonation Device (RDD) is considered.
Abstract: The Department of Homeland Security and others rely on results from atmospheric dispersion models for threat evaluation, event management, and post-event analyses. The ability to simulate dry deposition rates is a crucial part of our emergency preparedness capabilities. Deposited materials pose potential hazards from radioactive shine, inhalation, and ingestion pathways. A reliable characterization of these potential exposures is critical for management and mitigation of these hazards. A review of the current status of dry deposition formulations used in these atmospheric dispersion models was conducted. The formulations for dry deposition of particulate materials from am event such as a radiological attack involving a Radiological Detonation Device (RDD) is considered. The results of this effort are applicable to current emergency preparedness capabilities such as are deployed in the Interagency Modeling and Atmospheric Assessment Center (IMAAC), other similar national/regional emergency response systems, and standalone emergency response models. The review concludes that dry deposition formulations need to consider the full range of particle sizes including: 1) the accumulation mode range (0.1 to 1 micron diameter) and its minimum in deposition velocity, 2) smaller particles (less than .01 micron diameter) deposited mainly by molecular diffusion, 3) 10 to 50 micron diameter particles deposited mainly by more » impaction and gravitational settling, and 4) larger particles (greater than 100 micron diameter) deposited mainly by gravitational settling. The effects of the local turbulence intensity, particle characteristics, and surface element properties must also be addressed in the formulations. Specific areas for improvements in the dry deposition formulations are 1) capability of simulating near-field dry deposition patterns, 2) capability of addressing the full range of potential particle properties, 3) incorporation of particle surface retention/rebound processes, and. 4) development of dry deposition formulations applicable to urban areas. Also to improve dry deposition modeling capabilities, atmospheric dispersion models in which the dry deposition formulations are imbedded need better source-term plume initialization and improved in-plume treatment of particle growth processes. Dry deposition formulations used in current models are largely inapplicable to the complex urban environment. An improved capability is urgently needed to provide surface-specific information to assess local exposure hazard levels in both urban and non-urban areas on roads, buildings, crops, rivers, etc. A model improvement plan is developed with a near-term and far-term component. Despite some conceptual limitations, the current formulations for particle deposition based on a resistance approach have proven to provide reasonable dry deposition simulations. For many models with inadequate dry deposition formulations, adding or improving a resistance approach will be the desirable near-term update. Resistance models however are inapplicable aerodynamically very rough surfaces such as urban areas. In the longer term an improved parameterization of dry deposition needs to be developed that will be applicable to all surfaces, and in particular urban surfaces. « less

15 citations

01 Jun 1994
TL;DR: The most significant exposure pathway was found to be the consumption of cow's milk containing 131I, and the geographic distribution of the dose levels was directly related to the pattern of 131I deposition and was affected by the distribution of commercial milk and leafy vegetables.
Abstract: Radiation doses to individuals were estimated for the years 1944-1992. The dose estimates were based on the radioactive-releases from the Hanford Site in south central Washington. Conceptual models and computer codes were used to reconstruct doses through the early 1970s. The published Hanford Site annual environmental data were used to complete the does history through 1992. The most significant exposure pathway was found to be the consumption of cow`s milk containing iodine-131. For the atmospheric pathway, median cumulative dose estimates to the thyroid of children ranged from < 0.1 to 235 rad throughout the area studied. The geographic distribution of the dose levels was directly related to the pattern of iodine-131 deposition and was affected by the distribution of commercial milk and leafy vegetables. For the atmospheric pathway, the-highest estimated cumulative-effective-dose-equivalent (EDE) to an adult was estimated to be 1 rem at Ringold, Washington for the period 1944-1992. For the Columbia River pathway, cumulative EDE estimates ranged from <0.5 to l.5 rem cumulative dose to maximally exposed adults downriver from the Hanford Site for the years 1944-1992. The most significant river exposure pathway was consumption of resident fish containing phosphorus-32 and zinc-65.

7 citations

01 Mar 2007
TL;DR: The Radiation Safety of the Biosphere Program (RSBP) as mentioned in this paper was a typical IIASA program: interdisciplinary, independent, and involving East-West collaboration, and it aimed to investigate the accumulation over the past 50 years of vast quantities of radioactive waste and numerous radioactively contaminated sites resulting from the production and testing of nuclear weapons, as well as from nuclear accidents, in several countries, particularly Russia and the United States.
Abstract: This publication signals the closure of IIASA's Radiation Safety of the Biosphere Program that started in 1995. The goal of the Program was to assess the world radiation legacy after the end of the Cold War. As such, it was a typical IIASA program: interdisciplinary, independent, and involving East-West collaboration. The Program aimed to investigate the accumulation over the past 50 years of vast quantities of radioactive waste and numerous radioactively contaminated sites resulting from the production and testing of nuclear weapons, as well as from nuclear accidents, in several countries, particularly Russia and the United States. While it was not possible for the Program to provide a complete inventory of all sites and remediation options, it did select the most significant examples. Studies of Russian sites, a comparison of these to similar sites in the United States, and ongoing studies in China helped to provide a greater perspective on the problem. The Program carried out one of the first unclassified studies of the local problems related to radioactive contamination in areas of the former Soviet Union. This led to the publication of the book "Radiation Legacy of the Soviet Nuclear Complex", which presented the first authoritative and detailed information available outside the former Soviet Union about the nuclear inheritance of the past half-century. The Radiation Safety of the Biosphere Program also attracted the attention of policy makers to the problem of the nuclear legacy in urban areas. The directorate of the Kurchatov Institute in Moscow requested IIASA to start an international study to assess the radiological risk and resulting public impact from past waste management practices at the Institute. Responding to this request, the Radiation Program performed a scoping analysis of the environmental and social impacts of the radioactive waste disposal sites on the premises of the Kurchatov Institute which, because of the growth of the city of Moscow over the last 50 years, had actually become a part of downtown Moscow. This case study, which is reported in this Research Report, is an illustration of the general problem of the nuclear legacy in urban areas. With this report IIASA finalizes a successful program, which was not only an example of the Institutes collaborative work across the East-West political divide but also of IIASA's commitment to addressing issues of global change.

5 citations