Other affiliations: Indian Institute of Astrophysics, University College Dublin, Indian Institute of Science ...read more
Bio: Vyas Akondi is an academic researcher from Stanford University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Wavefront sensor & Wavefront. The author has an hindex of 11, co-authored 33 publications receiving 282 citations. Previous affiliations of Vyas Akondi include Indian Institute of Astrophysics & University College Dublin.
TL;DR: A novel modulating digital scheme employing a reflecting phase only spatial light modulator allows an easy reconfigurable pyramid with digital control of the apex angle and modulation geometry without the need of any mechanically moving parts.
Abstract: The pyramid wavefront sensor is known for its high sensitivity and dynamic range that can be tuned by mechanically altering its modulation amplitude. Here, a novel modulating digital scheme employing a reflecting phase only spatial light modulator is demonstrated. The use of the modulator allows an easy reconfigurable pyramid with digital control of the apex angle and modulation geometry without the need of any mechanically moving parts. Aberrations introduced by a 140-actuator deformable mirror were simultaneously sensed with the help of a commercial Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor. The wavefronts reconstructed using the digital pyramid wavefront sensor matched very closely with those sensed by the Hartmann-Shack. It is noted that a tunable modulation is necessary to operate the wavefront sensor in the linear regime and to accurately sense aberrations. Through simulations, it is shown that the wavefront sensor can be extended to astronomical applications as well. This novel digital pyramid wavefront sensor has the potential to become an attractive option in both open and closed loop adaptive optics systems.
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that visual simulations in an AO environment capture to a large extent the individual optical and visual performance obtained with real M-IOLs, both in absolute values and in the shape of through-focus curves.
Abstract: Adaptive optics (AO) visual simulators based on deformable mirrors, spatial light modulators or optotunable lenses are increasingly used to simulate vision through different multifocal lens designs. However, the correspondence of this simulation with that obtained through real intraocular lenses (IOLs) tested on the same eyes has not been, to our knowledge, demonstrated. We compare through-focus (TF) optical and visual quality produced by real multifocal IOLs (M-IOLs) -bifocal refractive and trifocal diffractive- projected on the subiect’s eye with those same designs simulated with a spatial light modulator (SLM) or an optotunable lens working in temporal multiplexing mode (SimVis technology). Measurements were performed on 7 cyclopleged subjects using a custom-made multichannel 3-active-optical-elements polychromatic AO Visual Simulator in monochromatic light. The same system was used to demonstrate performance of the real IOLs, SLM and SimVis technology simulations on bench using double-pass imaging on an artificial eye. Results show a general good correspondence between the TF performance with the real and simulated M-IOLs, both optically (on bench) and visually (measured visual acuity in patients). We demonstrate that visual simulations in an AO environment capture to a large extent the individual optical and visual performance obtained with real M-IOLs, both in absolute values and in the shape of through-focus curves.
TL;DR: In this article, the performance of two different reflective wavefront correctors, a deformable mirror and a spatial light modulator in signal-based wavefront sensing, was compared under identical conditions.
Abstract: Aberrations degrade the performance of optical systems in terms of resolution and signal-to-noise ratio. This work explores the feasibility of a signal-based wavefront sensor, which employs a search algorithm to estimate Zernike coefficients of given aberrations. The search algorithm was supported by Gaussian interpolation. The performance of two different reflective wavefront correctors, a deformable mirror and a spatial light modulator in signal-based wavefront sensing, was compared under identical conditions. The aberrations were introduced by using another identical high resolution reflecting spatial light modulator. The performance was quantified using the Strehl ratio, which was estimated from simultaneously acquired Hartmann-Shack measurements of Zernike coefficients. We find that the spatial light modulator can be a good alternative to the deformable mirror in terms of dynamic range and sensitivity, when speed is not a limiting factor. Distinct advantages of the spatial light modulator are high number of pixels and a larger active area.
TL;DR: In this paper, a hybrid centroiding technique involving IWCoG algorithm and correlation technique for a Laser Guide Star (LGS) based Shack Hartmann wavefront sensor is proposed.
Abstract: A hybrid centroiding technique involving Iteratively Weighted Center of Gravity (IWCoG) algorithm and corre-lation technique for a Laser Guide Star (LGS) based Shack Hartmann wavefront sensor is proposed. A simplemethod for simulating LGS elongated spots with photon noise and read out noise is demonstrated. The problemsassociated with IWCoG are addressed (a) Error saturation is minimized by adding random numbers iterativelyto centroid positions, (b) non uniform convergence of Centroid Estimation Error (CEE) is reduced by usingthe hypothesis that the iteration number with maximum correlation between the weighting function and theactual spot image function is the iteration with minimum error, (c) convergence rate is improved by shifting theweighting function to the point of maximum intensity in rst iteration. The novelty of the algorithm is testedby comparing with other centroiding algorithms.Keywords: Shack Hartmann wavefront sensor, iteratively weighted center of gravity algorithm, adaptive optics,laser guide star
TL;DR: A novel method of evaluating the temporal profile of a tunable lens in simulating different multifocal intraocular lenses (M-IOLs) is presented and it is shown that the time profiles generated with the VS ratio as a metric in SimVis resulted in TF VS ratio and TF simulated images that closely matched the TF VS ratios.
Abstract: Fast tunable lenses allow an effective design of a portable simultaneous vision simulator (SimVis) of multifocal corrections. A novel method of evaluating the temporal profile of a tunable lens in simulating different multifocal intraocular lenses (M-IOLs) is presented. The proposed method involves the characteristic fitting of the through-focus (TF) optical quality of the multifocal component of a given M-IOL to a linear combination of TF optical quality of monofocal lenses viable with a tunable lens. Three different types of M-IOL designs are tested, namely: segmented refractive, diffractive and refractive extended depth of focus. The metric used for the optical evaluation of the temporal profile is the visual Strehl (VS) ratio. It is shown that the time profiles generated with the VS ratio as a metric in SimVis resulted in TF VS ratio and TF simulated images that closely matched the TF VS ratio and TF simulated images predicted with the M-IOL. The effects of temporal sampling, varying pupil size, monochromatic aberrations, longitudinal chromatic aberrations and temporal dynamics on SimVis are discussed.
TL;DR: In this article, optical coherence tomography is used for high-resolution, noninvasive imaging of the human retina, including the macula and optic nerve head in normal human subjects.
Abstract: Objective: To demonstrate optical coherence tomography for high-resolution, noninvasive imaging of the human retina. Optical coherence tomography is a new imaging technique analogous to ultrasound B scan that can provide cross-sectional images of the retina with micrometer-scale resolution. Design: Survey optical coherence tomographic examination of the retina, including the macula and optic nerve head in normal human subjects. Settings Research laboratory. Participants: Convenience sample of normal human subjects. Main Outcome Measures: Correlation of optical coherence retinal tomographs with known normal retinal anatomy. Results: Optical coherence tomographs can discriminate the cross-sectional morphologic features of the fovea and optic disc, the layered structure of the retina, and normal anatomic variations in retinal and retinal nerve fiber layer thicknesses with 10- μm depth resolution. Conclusion: Optical coherence tomography is a potentially useful technique for high depth resolution, cross-sectional examination of the fundus.
TL;DR: Applications of adaptive optics in the related areas of optical data storage, optical tweezers and micro/nanofabrication are reviewed, particularly in confocal and two-photon microscopes.
Abstract: Confocal microscopes unlike their conventional counterparts have the ability to optically ‘section’ thick specimens. However the resolution and optical sectioning can be severely degraded by system or specimen-induced aberrations. The use of high aperture lenses further exacerbates the difficulties. We will describe an adaptive optics solution to this fundamental problem.
TL;DR: A redefinition of presbyopia is proposed that states “presbyopia occurs when the physiologically normal age‐related reduction in the eye's focusing range reaches a point, when optimally corrected for distance vision, that the clarity of vision at near is insufficient to satisfy an individual's requirements”.
Abstract: Presbyopia is a global problem affecting over a billion people worldwide The prevalence of unmanaged presbyopia is as high as 50% of those over 50 years of age in developing world populations, due to a lack of awareness and accessibility to affordable treatment, and is even as high as 34% in developed countries Definitions of presbyopia are inconsistent and varied, so we propose a redefinition that states "presbyopia occurs when the physiologically normal age-related reduction in the eye's focusing range reaches a point, when optimally corrected for distance vision, that the clarity of vision at near is insufficient to satisfy an individual's requirements" Strategies for correcting presbyopia include separate optical devices located in front of the visual system (reading glasses) or a change in the direction of gaze to view through optical zones of different optical powers (bifocal, trifocal or progressive addition spectacle lenses), monovision (with contact lenses, intraocular lenses, laser refractive surgery and corneal collagen shrinkage), simultaneous images (with contact lenses, intraocular lenses and corneal inlays), pinhole depth of focus expansion (with intraocular lenses, corneal inlays and pharmaceuticals), crystalline lens softening (with lasers or pharmaceuticals) or restored dynamics (with 'accommodating' intraocular lenses, scleral expansion techniques and ciliary muscle electrostimulation); these strategies may be applied differently to the two eyes to optimise the range of clear focus for an individual's task requirements and minimise adverse visual effects However, none fully overcome presbyopia in all patients While the restoration of natural accommodation or an equivalent remains elusive, guidance is given on presbyopic correction evaluation techniques
TL;DR: This article clarifies what an EDOF IOL is and proposes naming lenses that have combined optical designs as “hybrid IOLs,” which are commonly a subject of confusion with optical multifocality concepts.
Abstract: Extended depth-of-focus (EDOF) is a new intraocular lens (IOL) technology in the treatment of presbyopia. In contrast to multifocal (MF) IOLs, EDOF lenses create a single elongated focal point, rather than several foci, to enhance depth of focus. In this way, EDOF IOLs aim to reduce photic phenomena, glare, and halos, which have been reported in MF IOLs. A potential disadvantage is a decrease of retinal image quality if the amount of the aberrations is excessively increased. Frequently, EDOF IOLs are combined with MF optical designs; for this reason, EDOF IOLs are commonly a subject of confusion with optical multifocality concepts. The aim of this article is to clarify what an EDOF IOL is and to discuss the recently reported outcomes with these IOLs. We propose naming lenses that have combined optical designs as "hybrid IOLs."
14 Oct 2021
TL;DR: This Primer provides an overview of the general principles of adaptive optics and explores the different ways in which adaptive optics can correct optical aberrations for high-resolution imaging in the fields of astronomy, vision science and microscopy.
Abstract: Adaptive optics (AO) is a technique that corrects for optical aberrations. It was originally proposed to correct for the blurring effect of atmospheric turbulence on images in ground-based telescopes and was instrumental in the work that resulted in the Nobel prize-winning discovery of a supermassive compact object at the centre of our galaxy. When AO is used to correct for the eye’s imperfect optics, retinal changes at the cellular level can be detected, allowing us to study the operation of the visual system and to assess ocular health in the microscopic domain. By correcting for sample-induced blur in microscopy, AO has pushed the boundaries of imaging in thick tissue specimens, such as when observing neuronal processes in the brain. In this primer, we focus on the application of AO for high-resolution imaging in astronomy, vision science and microscopy. We begin with an overview of the general principles of AO and its main components, which include methods to measure the aberrations, devices for aberration correction, and how these components are linked in operation. We present results and applications from each field along with reproducibility considerations and limitations. Finally, we discuss future directions. This Primer provides an overview of the general principles of adaptive optics and explores the different ways in which adaptive optics can correct optical aberrations for high-resolution imaging in the fields of astronomy, vision science and microscopy.