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Walter V. Kaulfers

Bio: Walter V. Kaulfers is an academic researcher from Stanford University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Foreign language & Grammar. The author has an hindex of 3, co-authored 10 publications receiving 44 citations.

Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: For instance, this article argued that the adoption of ability to understand and speak the language should henceforth be the central and paramount objective of modern foreign-language teaching in elementary and secondary schools, and in lower division college classes, by no means implies that reading and writing need be thrown into discard.
Abstract: IF THE questionnaire submitted to foreign-language teachers by the Modern Foreign Language Study in 1925-1926 were sent out again today, it is doubtful if reading would again be rated as the central, paramount objective by as large a number as approved the recommendations of the Coleman Report.' Since 1925 even the size of the world has changed for all practical purposes. Today, the most distant point on the globe is only 60 hours from home by fast airplane. In 1925 most teachers listened to radioprograms, if at all, only through headphones, and the static from local stations was often as great as that accompanying modern broadcasts from the South Pole. Today, the pronouncements of dictators, and the coronation or abdication of kings, can be heard in almost every home in America with greater clarity than local broadcasts in 1925. To maintain that foreignlanguage teaching can be functional if guided by recommendations suited to an entirely different set of conditions, however recent, would not be an unusual, but certainly a doubtfully sane reaction of the teaching profession. Recent articles in this and other foreign-language publications give evidence of a growing realization that to serve present and very obvious future needs, modern foreign-language teaching must stress the aural-oral abilities more than ever before. The short-wave radio is increasingly inspiring a popular demand for ability to understand the spoken language, while growing American participation in world affairs is already creating a similar, if not greater, demand for ability actually to speak the foreign tongue. To insist that the adoption of ability to understand and speak the language should henceforth be the central and paramount objective of modern foreign-language teaching in elementary and secondary schools, and in lower division college classes, by no means implies that reading and writing need be thrown into discard. The proposal represents only a marked shift in primary emphasis-a putting of first things first, not from the viewpoint of method or subject-matter, but from the viewpoint of life needs outside the school.

20 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Dec 1942-Hispania

10 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: For instance, the authors argues that the student should come into contact with the culture of the country, primarily through the medium of the foreign tongue, while he is developing skill in the use of the language, not as has formerly been the case, after he has "covered the grammar."
Abstract: THE assumption in conventional language courses has been that after the mechanics of the language were mastered attention would be given to the appreciation of foreign cultures. Usually this was done through the medium of English as an incidental part of the foreign-language course. Such assumptions ignore the fact that comparatively few students of language survive the drill period, and consequently whatever knowledge a student gains in this direction is largely incidental and more in the nature of a by-product than of a significant outcome--rarely even as an incidental by-product. The trend in modern foreign-language teaching is to have the student come into contact with the culture of the country, primarily through the medium of the foreign tongue, while he is developing skill in the use of the language--not as has formerly been the case, after he has "covered the grammar." In other words, the pupil is to sharpen his linguistic tools on content worth communicating from the standpoint of the thought, ideas or information expressed-cultural material, it may be, of a type calculated to introduce him to the foreign country and its people in relation to our own national life and to world progress in the arts and sciences.' An overview of the life and culture of the country through the medium of the foreign language is not only educationally worthwile but also desirable as a background for the study of its literature. Thus culture and language are integrated, one reinforces the other, neither is sacrificed, and the sum total of the outcomes is greater not only in terms of ability in language and information but also in terms of student interest. The conviction is strong that language should be learned from the start in and through cultural content-through material and exercises that have some significance in terms of the information and ideas contained apart from the mere facts of language itself. The accompanying unit is a minor sample of the cultural approach which is beginning to take root in the modern foreign-language teaching in the

3 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors contrast the intellectual jigsaw-puzzle conception of language learning with the expanding snowball conception in terms of a year's running-unit in the basic essentials of grammar for conversation.
Abstract: Author's Summary— The intellectual “jigsaw-puzzle” conception of language-learning contrasted with the “expanding snowball” conception in terms of a year's running-unit in the basic essentials of grammar for conversation. Classroom-tested procedures illustrated with specific suggestions for their use with large high-school groups whenever specialized practice in grammar is actually needed as an aid in promoting ability to read write, and converse.

2 citations


Cited by
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Book
26 Mar 2010
TL;DR: 1. Testing and assessment in context 2. Standardised testing 3. Classroom assessment 4. Deciding what to test 5. Designing test specifications 6. evaluating, prototyping and piloting
Abstract: 1. Testing and assessment in context 2. Standardised testing 3. Classroom assessment 4. Deciding what to test 5. Designing test specifications 6. Evaluating, prototyping and piloting 7. Scoring language tests 8. Aligning tests to standards 9. Test administration 10. Testing and teaching Epilogue Glossary

241 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Dec 2000-System
TL;DR: This paper looked at the phenomenon of communicative language testing as it emerged in the late 1970s and early 1980s as a reaction against tests constructed of multiple choice items and the perceived over-emphasis of reliability.

78 citations

Book
01 Jan 1993
TL;DR: This paper investigated the principles upon which rating scales in oral testing are constructed and used, and the subsequent claims of reliability and validity made for them, and found that the Fluency rating scale was seen to be the most stable in the construction phase of the study.
Abstract: The present research investigates the principles upon which rating scales in oral testing are constructed and used, and the subsequent claims of reliability and validity made for them. The research addresses two main questions: (i) can rating scales be constructed on the basis of an analysis of a database of actual student speech; and (ii) are scales produced on the basis of student speech superior to those produced using a-priori methods? A corpus of spoken data was collected and analyzed. Discriminant analysis was used in order to isolate factors which could discriminate between students of different ability levels, and a Fluency and an Accuracy rating scale constructed. The Fluency rating scale was seen to be the most stable in the construction phase of the study. Forty seven students took three tasks. Video recordings were rated by five raters on the two rating scales and the English Language Testing Service rating scale.

49 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The selection of items to be included in this report has been very diffi-cult as mentioned in this paper, and a complete listing of all titles pertain to it would run well over one hundred and fifty.
Abstract: I K E SELECTION of items to be included in this report has been very diffi­ cult. Reduced space and great activity have made the omission of many truly significant titles a necessity. One topic in particular has come to the fore during the period covered, and a complete listing of all titles pertain­ ing to it would run well over one hundred and fifty. This is, of course, the Army Specialized Training Program (ASTP) language (and area) program and the offshoots from it, the \"intensive\" type course, the \"Army Method,\" and the like:

36 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors brings to the fore trends in second language (L2) pronunciation research, teaching, and assessment by highlighting the ways in which pronunciation instructional priorities and assess metrics are identified and assessed.
Abstract: This article brings to the fore trends in second language (L2) pronunciation research, teaching, and assessment by highlighting the ways in which pronunciation instructional priorities and assessme...

28 citations