Other affiliations: University of California, Santa Barbara, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley ...read more
Bio: Wanli Ma is an academic researcher from Soochow University (Suzhou). The author has contributed to research in topics: Polymer solar cell & Quantum dot. The author has an hindex of 47, co-authored 172 publications receiving 18197 citations. Previous affiliations of Wanli Ma include University of California, Santa Barbara & Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: By applying specific fabrication conditions summarized in the Experimental section and post-production annealing at 150°C, polymer solar cells with power-conversion efficiency approaching 5% were demonstrated.
Abstract: By applying the specific fabrication conditions summarized in the Experimental section and post-production annealing at 150 °C, polymer solar cells with power-conversion efficiency approaching 5 % are demonstrated. These devices exhibit remarkable thermal stability. We attribute the improved performance to changes in the bulk heterojunction material induced by thermal annealing. The improved nanoscale morphology, the increased crystallinity of the semiconducting polymer, and the improved contact to the electron-collecting electrode facilitate charge generation, charge transport to, and charge collection at the electrodes, thereby enhancing the device efficiency by lowering the series resistance of the polymer solar cells.
TL;DR: By incorporating a few volume per cent of alkanedithiols in the solution used to spin-cast films comprising a low-bandgap polymer and a fullerene derivative, the power-conversion efficiency of photovoltaic cells is increased from 2.8% to 5.5% through altering the bulk heterojunction morphology.
Abstract: High charge-separation efficiency combined with the reduced fabrication costs associated with solution processing and the potential for implementation on flexible substrates make 'plastic' solar cells a compelling option for tomorrow's photovoltaics. Attempts to control the donor/acceptor morphology in bulk heterojunction materials as required for achieving high power-conversion efficiency have, however, met with limited success. By incorporating a few volume per cent of alkanedithiols in the solution used to spin-cast films comprising a low-bandgap polymer and a fullerene derivative, the power-conversion efficiency of photovoltaic cells (air-mass 1.5 global conditions) is increased from 2.8% to 5.5% through altering the bulk heterojunction morphology. This discovery can potentially enable morphological control in bulk heterojunction materials where thermal annealing is either undesirable or ineffective.
TL;DR: In this paper, an optical spacer between the active layer and the Al electrode is proposed to redistribute the light intensity inside the device by introducing an optical sensor. But the spacer is not suitable for the case of thin-film photovoltaic cells.
Abstract: reported under AM1.5 (AM: air mass) illumination, this efficiency is not sufficient to meet realistic specifications for commercialization. The need to improve the light-to-electricity conversion efficiency requires the implementation of new materials and the exploration of new device architectures. Polymer-based photovoltaic cells are thin-film devices fabricated in the metal-insulator-metal configuration sketched in Figure 1a. The absorbing and charge-separating bulk-heterojunction layer with a thickness of approximately 100 nm is sandwiched between two charge-selective electrodes; a transparent bilayer electrode comprising poly(3,4-ethylenedioxylenethiophene):polystyrene sulfonic acid (PEDOT:PSS) on indium tin oxide (ITO) glass for collecting the holes and a lower-work-function metal (here, Al) for collecting the electrons. The work-function difference between the two electrodes provides a built-in potential that breaks the symmetry, thereby providing a driving force for the photogenerated electrons and holes toward their respective electrodes. Because of optical interference between the incident (from the ITO side) and back-reflected light, the intensity of the light is zero at the metallic (Al) electrode; Figure 1a shows a schematic representation of the spatial distribution of the squared optical electric-field strength. [9–11] Thus, a relatively large fraction of the active layer is in a dead-zone in which the photogeneration of carriers is significantly reduced. Moreover, this effect causes more electron–hole pairs to be produced near the ITO/PEDOT:PSS electrode, a distribution which is known to reduce the photovoltaic conversion efficiency. [12,13] This “optical interference effect” is especially important for thin-film structures where layer thicknesses are comparable to the absorption depth and the wavelength of the incident light, as is the case for photovoltaic cells fabricated from semiconducting polymers. In order to overcome these problems, one might simply increase the thickness of the active layer to absorb more light. Because of the low mobility of the charge carriers in the polymer:C60 composites, however, the increased internal resistance of thicker films will inevitably lead to a reduced fill factor. An alternative approach is to change the device architecture with the goal of spatially redistributing the light intensity inside the device by introducing an optical spacer between the active layer and the Al electrode as sketched in Figure 1a.  Although this revised architecture would appear to solve the problem, the prerequisites for an ideal optical spacer limit the choice of materials: the layer must be a good acceptor and an electron-transport material with a conduction band edge lower in energy than that of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of C60; the LUMO must be above (or close to) the Fermi energy of the collecting metal electrode; and it must be transparent to light with wavelengths within the solar spectrum.
TL;DR: Using 1,8-diiodooctane as the processing additive, the efficiency of the BHJ solar cells was improved and the efficiency rating was improved from 3.4% (for the reference device) to 5.1%.
Abstract: Two criteria for processing additives introduced to control the morphology of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) materials for use in solar cells have been identified: (i) selective (differential) solubility of the fullerene component and (ii) higher boiling point than the host solvent. Using these criteria, we have investigated the class of 1,8-di(R)octanes with various functional groups (R) as processing additives for BHJ solar cells. Control of the BHJ morphology by selective solubility of the fullerene component is demonstrated using these high boiling point processing additives. The best results are obtained with R = Iodine (I). Using 1,8-diiodooctane as the processing additive, the efficiency of the BHJ solar cells was improved from 3.4% (for the reference device) to 5.1%.
TL;DR: The rational synthesis of colloidal copper(I) sulfide nanocrystals are presented and their application as an active light absorbing component in combination with CdS nanorods to make a solution-processed solar cell with 1.6% power conversion efficiency is demonstrated.
Abstract: We present the rational synthesis of colloidal copper(I) sulfide nanocrystals and demonstrate their application as an active light absorbing component in combination with CdS nanorods to make a solution-processed solar cell with 1.6% power conversion efficiency on both conventional glass substrates and flexible plastic substrates with stability over a 4 month testing period.
TL;DR: This review gives a general introduction to the materials, production techniques, working principles, critical parameters, and stability of the organic solar cells, and discusses the alternative approaches such as polymer/polymer solar cells and organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells.
Abstract: The need to develop inexpensive renewable energy sources stimulates scientific research for efficient, low-cost photovoltaic devices.1 The organic, polymer-based photovoltaic elements have introduced at least the potential of obtaining cheap and easy methods to produce energy from light.2 The possibility of chemically manipulating the material properties of polymers (plastics) combined with a variety of easy and cheap processing techniques has made polymer-based materials present in almost every aspect of modern society.3 Organic semiconductors have several advantages: (a) lowcost synthesis, and (b) easy manufacture of thin film devices by vacuum evaporation/sublimation or solution cast or printing technologies. Furthermore, organic semiconductor thin films may show high absorption coefficients4 exceeding 105 cm-1, which makes them good chromophores for optoelectronic applications. The electronic band gap of organic semiconductors can be engineered by chemical synthesis for simple color changing of light emitting diodes (LEDs).5 Charge carrier mobilities as high as 10 cm2/V‚s6 made them competitive with amorphous silicon.7 This review is organized as follows. In the first part, we will give a general introduction to the materials, production techniques, working principles, critical parameters, and stability of the organic solar cells. In the second part, we will focus on conjugated polymer/fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells, mainly on polyphenylenevinylene (PPV) derivatives/(1-(3-methoxycarbonyl) propyl-1-phenyl[6,6]C61) (PCBM) fullerene derivatives and poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/PCBM systems. In the third part, we will discuss the alternative approaches such as polymer/polymer solar cells and organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells. In the fourth part, we will suggest possible routes for further improvements and finish with some conclusions. The different papers mentioned in the text have been chosen for didactical purposes and cannot reflect the chronology of the research field nor have a claim of completeness. The further interested reader is referred to the vast amount of quality papers published in this field during the past decade.
TL;DR: An approach for depositing high-quality FAPbI3 films, involving FAP bI3 crystallization by the direct intramolecular exchange of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) molecules intercalated in PbI2 with formamidinium iodide is reported.
Abstract: The band gap of formamidinium lead iodide (FAPbI3) perovskites allows broader absorption of the solar spectrum relative to conventional methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3). Because the optoelectronic properties of perovskite films are closely related to film quality, deposition of dense and uniform films is crucial for fabricating high-performance perovskite solar cells (PSCs). We report an approach for depositing high-quality FAPbI3 films, involving FAPbI3 crystallization by the direct intramolecular exchange of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) molecules intercalated in PbI2 with formamidinium iodide. This process produces FAPbI3 films with (111)-preferred crystallographic orientation, large-grained dense microstructures, and flat surfaces without residual PbI2. Using films prepared by this technique, we fabricated FAPbI3-based PSCs with maximum power conversion efficiency greater than 20%.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors presented a review of several organic photovoltaics (OPV) technologies, including conjugated polymers with high-electron-affinity molecules like C60 (as in the bulk-heterojunction solar cell).
Abstract: There has been an intensive search for cost-effective photovoltaics since the development of the first solar cells in the 1950s. [1–3] Among all alternative technologies to silicon-based pn-junction solar cells, organic solar cells could lead the most significant cost reduction.  The field of organic photovoltaics (OPVs) comprises organic/inorganic nanostructures like dyesensitized solar cells, multilayers of small organic molecules, and phase-separated mixtures of organic materials (the bulkheterojunction solar cell). A review of several OPV technologies has been presented recently.  Light absorption in organic solar cells leads to the generation of excited, bound electron– hole pairs (often called excitons). To achieve substantial energy-conversion efficiencies, these excited electron–hole pairs need to be dissociated into free charge carriers with a high yield. Excitons can be dissociated at interfaces of materials with different electron affinities or by electric fields, or the dissociation can be trap or impurity assisted. Blending conjugated polymers with high-electron-affinity molecules like C60 (as in the bulk-heterojunction solar cell) has proven to be an efficient way for rapid exciton dissociation. Conjugated polymer–C60 interpenetrating networks exhibit ultrafast charge transfer (∼40 fs). [6,7] As there is no competing decay process of the optically excited electron–hole pair located on the polymer in this time regime, an optimized mixture with C60 converts absorbed photons to electrons with an efficiency close to 100%.  The associated bicontinuous interpenetrating network enables efficient collection of the separated charges at the electrodes. The bulk-heterojunction solar cell has attracted a lot of attention because of its potential to be a true low-cost photovoltaic technology. A simple coating or printing process would enable roll-to-roll manufacturing of flexible, low-weight PV modules, which should permit cost-efficient production and the development of products for new markets, e.g., in the field of portable electronics. One major obstacle for the commercialization of bulk-heterojunction solar cells is the relatively small device efficiencies that have been demonstrated up to now.  The best energy-conversion efficiencies published for small-area devices approach 5%. [9–11] A detailed analysis of state-of-the-art bulk-heterojunction solar cells  reveals that the efficiency is limited by the low opencircuit voltage (Voc) delivered by these devices under illumination. Typically, organic semiconductors with a bandgap of about 2 eV are applied as photoactive materials, but the observed open-circuit voltages are only in the range of 0.5–1 V. There has long been a controversy about the origin of the Voc in conjugated polymer–fullerene solar cells. Following the classical thin-film solar-cell concept, the metal–insulator–metal (MIM) model was applied to bulk-heterojunction devices. In the MIM picture, Voc is simply equal to the work-function difference of the two metal electrodes. The model had to be modified after the observation of the strong influence of the reduction potential of the fullerene on the open-circuit volt
01 Jan 2020
TL;DR: Prolonged viral shedding provides the rationale for a strategy of isolation of infected patients and optimal antiviral interventions in the future.
Abstract: Summary Background Since December, 2019, Wuhan, China, has experienced an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 have been reported but risk factors for mortality and a detailed clinical course of illness, including viral shedding, have not been well described. Methods In this retrospective, multicentre cohort study, we included all adult inpatients (≥18 years old) with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from Jinyintan Hospital and Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital (Wuhan, China) who had been discharged or had died by Jan 31, 2020. Demographic, clinical, treatment, and laboratory data, including serial samples for viral RNA detection, were extracted from electronic medical records and compared between survivors and non-survivors. We used univariable and multivariable logistic regression methods to explore the risk factors associated with in-hospital death. Findings 191 patients (135 from Jinyintan Hospital and 56 from Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital) were included in this study, of whom 137 were discharged and 54 died in hospital. 91 (48%) patients had a comorbidity, with hypertension being the most common (58 [30%] patients), followed by diabetes (36 [19%] patients) and coronary heart disease (15 [8%] patients). Multivariable regression showed increasing odds of in-hospital death associated with older age (odds ratio 1·10, 95% CI 1·03–1·17, per year increase; p=0·0043), higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (5·65, 2·61–12·23; p Interpretation The potential risk factors of older age, high SOFA score, and d-dimer greater than 1 μg/mL could help clinicians to identify patients with poor prognosis at an early stage. Prolonged viral shedding provides the rationale for a strategy of isolation of infected patients and optimal antiviral interventions in the future. Funding Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences; National Science Grant for Distinguished Young Scholars; National Key Research and Development Program of China; The Beijing Science and Technology Project; and Major Projects of National Science and Technology on New Drug Creation and Development.
TL;DR: In this paper, a polymer solar cell based on a bulk hetereojunction design with an internal quantum efficiency of over 90% across the visible spectrum (425 nm to 575 nm) is reported.
Abstract: A polymer solar-cell based on a bulk hetereojunction design with an internal quantum efficiency of over 90% across the visible spectrum (425 nm to 575 nm) is reported. The device exhibits a power-conversion efficiency of 6% under standard air-mass 1.5 global illumination tests.