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Wayne Johnson

Bio: Wayne Johnson is an academic researcher from Ames Research Center. The author has contributed to research in topics: Rotor (electric) & Helicopter rotor. The author has an hindex of 32, co-authored 121 publications receiving 3129 citations.


Papers
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Proceedings ArticleDOI
25 Jun 2018
TL;DR: A number of candidate concept aircraft are presently being designed to meet a set of UAM requirements, in order to quantify the tradeoffs and performance targets necessary for practical implementation of the UAM vision.
Abstract: The current push for Urban Air Mobility (UAM) is predicated on the feasibility of novel aircraft types, which will be enabled by the near-term availability of mature technology for high performance subsystems. A number of candidate concept aircraft are presently being designed to meet a set of UAM requirements, in order to quantify the tradeoffs and performance targets necessary for practical implementation of the UAM vision. In examining these vehicles, performance targets and recurring technology themes emerge, which may guide investments in research and development within NASA, other government agencies, academia, and industry.

221 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A vortex lattice code, CAMRAD II, and a Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stoke code, OVERFLOW-D2, were used to predict the aerodynamic performance of a two-bladed horizontal axis wind turbine.
Abstract: A vortex lattice code, CAMRAD II, and a Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stoke code, OVERFLOW-D2, were used to predict the aerodynamic performance of a two-bladed horizontal axis wind turbine. All computations were compared with experimental data that was collected at the NASA Ames Research Center 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel. Computations were performed for both axial as well as yawed operating conditions. Various stall delay models and dynamics stall models were used by the CAMRAD II code. Comparisons between the experimental data and computed aerodynamic loads show that the OVERFLOW-D2 code can accurately predict the power and spanwise loading of a wind turbine rotor.

201 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code and rotorcraft computational structural dynamics (CSD) codes are coupled to calculate helicopter rotor airloads across a range of flight conditions.
Abstract: A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code and rotorcraft computational structural dynamics (CSD) code are coupled to calculate helicopter rotor airloads across a range of flight conditions. An iterative loose (weak) coupling methodology is used to couple the CFD and CSD codes on a per revolution, periodic basis. The CFD code uses a high fidelity, Navier‐Stokes, overset grid methodology with first principles-based wake capturing. Modifications are made to the CFD code for the aeroelastic analysis. For a UH-60A Blackhawk helicopter, three challenging level flight conditions are computed: 1) high speed, μ = 0.37, with advancing blade negative lift, 2) low speed, μ = 0.15, with blade‐vortex interaction, and 3) high thrust with dynamic stall, μ = 0.24. Results are compared with UH-60A Airloads Program flight test data. For all cases the loose coupling methodology is shown to be stable, convergent, and robust with full coupling of normal force, pitching moment, and chord force. In comparison with flight test data, normal force and pitching moment phase and magnitude are in good agreement. The shapes of the airloads curves are well captured. Overall, the results are a noteworthy improvement over lifting line aerodynamics used in rotorcraft comprehensive codes.

163 citations

01 Mar 1982
TL;DR: In this paper, a class of algorithms for the multicyclic control of helicopter vibration and loads is derived and discussed, characterized by a linear, quasi-static, frequency-domain model of the helicopter response to control.
Abstract: A class of algorithms for the multicyclic control of helicopter vibration and loads is derived and discussed. This class is characterized by a linear, quasi-static, frequency-domain model of the helicopter response to control; identification of the helicopter model by least-squared-error or Kalman filter methods; and a minimum variance or quadratic performance function controller. Previous research on such controllers is reviewed. The derivations and discussions cover the helicopter model; the identification problem, including both off-line and on-line (recursive) algorithms; the control problem, including both open-loop and closed-loop feedback; and the various regulator configurations possible within this class. Conclusions from analysis and numerical simulations of the regulators provide guidance in the design and selection of algorithms for further development, including wind tunnel and flight tests.

159 citations

01 Jun 1980
TL;DR: In this article, structural, inertia, and aerodynamic models were combined to form a comprehensive model of rotor aerodynamics and dynamics that is applicable to a wide range of problems and a wide class of vehicles.
Abstract: Structural, inertia, and aerodynamic models were combined to form a comprehensive model of rotor aerodynamics and dynamics that is applicable to a wide range of problems and a wide class of vehicles. A digital computer program is used to calculate rotor performance, loads, and noise; helicopter vibration and gust response; flight dynamics and handling qualities; and system aeroelastic stability. The analysis is intended for use in the design, testing, and evaluation of rotors and rotorcraft, and to be a basis for further development of rotary wing theories.

146 citations


Cited by
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Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 1997
TL;DR: The boundary layer equations for plane, incompressible, and steady flow are described in this paper, where the boundary layer equation for plane incompressibility is defined in terms of boundary layers.
Abstract: The boundary layer equations for plane, incompressible, and steady flow are $$\matrix{ {u{{\partial u} \over {\partial x}} + v{{\partial u} \over {\partial y}} = - {1 \over \varrho }{{\partial p} \over {\partial x}} + v{{{\partial ^2}u} \over {\partial {y^2}}},} \cr {0 = {{\partial p} \over {\partial y}},} \cr {{{\partial u} \over {\partial x}} + {{\partial v} \over {\partial y}} = 0.} \cr }$$

2,598 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the aerodynamic properties of wind turbine wakes are studied, focusing on the physics of power extraction by wind turbines, and the main interest is to study how the far wake decays downstream in order to estimate the effect produced in downstream turbines.

1,161 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An algorithm is presented to adapt the coefficients of an array of FIR filters, whose outputs are linearly coupled to another array of error detection points, so that the sum of all the mean square error signals is minimized.
Abstract: An algorithm is presented to adapt the coefficients of an array of FIR filters, whose outputs are linearly coupled to another array of error detection points, so that the sum of all the mean square error signals is minimized. The algorithm uses the instantaneous gradient of the total error, and for a single filter and error reduces to the "filtered x LMS" algorithm. The application of this algorithm to active sound and vibration control is discussed, by which suitably driven secondary sources are used to reduce the levels of acoustic or vibrational fields by minimizing the sum of the squares of a number of error sensor signals. A practical implementation of the algorithm is presented for the active control of sound at a single frequency. The algorithm converges on a timescale comparable to the response time of the system to be controlled, and is found to be very robust. If the pure tone reference signal is synchronously sampled, it is found that the behavior of the adaptive system can be completely described by a matrix of linear, time invariant, transfer functions. This is used to explain the behavior observed in simulations of a simplified single input, single output adaptive system, which retains many of the properties of the multichannel algorithm.

820 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a comprehensive review of wind turbine aeroelasticity is given, starting with the simple aerodynamic Blade Element Momentum Method and ending with giving a review of the work done applying CFD on wind turbine rotors.

618 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the state-of-the-art numerical calculation of wind turbine wake aerodynamics is presented, where different computational fluid dynamics techniques for modeling the rotor and the wake are discussed.
Abstract: This article reviews the state-of-the-art numerical calculation of wind turbine wake aerodynamics. Different computational fluid dynamics techniques for modeling the rotor and the wake are discussed. Regarding rotor modeling, recent advances in the generalized actuator approach and the direct model are discussed, as far as it attributes to the wake description. For the wake, the focus is on the different turbulence models that are employed to study wake effects on downstream turbines.

535 citations